- Title Pages
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Boxes
- List of Abbreviations
- 1 Global Crime Governance in World Society
- 2 Power, Change, and Institutions in World Society
- 3 The Historical Development of Global Anti-Crime Procedures
- 4 The Emergence and Diffusion of Global Anti-Crime Regulations
- 5 Global Activities against Money Laundering
- 6 Global Anti-Corruption Norms
- 7 Global Efforts against the Trafficking of Humans
- 8 The Adoption of Crime Policies: Patterns and Strategies
- 9 Non-State Actors in Global Crime Governance
- 10 Global Crime Governance: Conclusions, Implications, and Outlook
- Appendix 1: The Data Set
- Appendix 2: Details on the Network Analysis
- Appendix 3: Basics on Transnational Organized Crime
- Appendix 4: Additional Table Chapter 5
- Appendix 5: Determining Set Relations
- Appendix 6: Interplay of American and International Anti-Crime Efforts
- Appendix 7: Ratification Data
Appendix 1: The Data Set
Appendix 1: The Data Set
- Common Goods and Evils?
- Oxford University Press
The quantitative methods used in this book are based on a newly established data set of 193 countries (see box A-1), which contains data on signature, ratification, and membership. In single cases, the data set has been enlarged to cover additional territories and international organizations active in global crime control (N = 263, this (p.256) concerns the formal network analysis of the FATF network, see box A-1). The underlying data sources have been web pages related to the different agreements. Additional information, such as that related to the establishment of Financial Intelligence Units or policy change and human trafficking, has been researched from websites of international organizations or respective countries and coded in a way to achieve comparability. Most data were collected in August 2010; a detailed coding scheme is available from the author. In sum, the collected data provide a large and unique quantitative data set on global crime governance and related national policies worldwide. The overall time span covered is from 1960 to 2010.
Box A-1 List of Countries in the Data Set
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte D’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Box A-2 Additional Data for Network Analysis
Anguilla, Aruba, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, China (Hong Kong Special Administrative Region), China (Macao Special Administrative Region), Chinese Taipei/Taiwan, Cook Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Niue, Turks and Caicos Islands, Asian Development Bank, ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative, African Development Bank, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat, APG, Asian Development Bank, ASEAN Secretariat, Basel Committee on Banking Supervisors, Central American Bank for Economic Integration, Caribbean Community, Caribbean Customs and Law Enforcement Council, Caribbean Development Bank, CFATF, Commonwealth of Independent States Secretariat, COMESA Secretariat, Commonwealth Secretariat, Collective Security Treaty Organization, EAC Secretariat, EAG, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Central Bank, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, ECDCO [Caribbean organization, further details unknown], Eurasian Economic Community, Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units, Eurojust, Europol, ESAAMLG, Eastern and Southern African Development Bank, European Commission (and other EU), FATF, GAFISUD, GIABA, Inter-American Development Bank, International Association of Insurance Supervisors, International Monetary Fund, International Organization of Securities Commission, Interpol, MENAFATF, Moneyval, Organization of American States, Oceania Customs Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Offshore Group of Banking Supervisors, Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Center, Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, SADC Secretariat, Shanghai Cooperation Council, United Nations, World Bank, World Customs Organization, Gulf Cooperation Council.
Note: FATF and regional networks are associates to other regional networks, not to themselves. The United Nations sends delegates from different organizational units to meetings, e.g. those of the UNODC or the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee. Since these delegates are part of a common organization, I summed up such multiple appearances as ‘United Nations’. This is done to compensate for the fact that any country, regardless of its size and whether different offices are involved, could also only be counted once in the data set. This treatment results in a slight bias towards international organizations, in particular with regard to their centrality and related values. This is not further considered in the network analysis since the position of international organizations is not its focus, and even the maximum values for international organizations do not exceed the maximum values of countries.