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Blaming Europe?Responsibility Without Accountability in the European Union$

Sara B. Hobolt and James Tilley

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199665686

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665686.001.0001

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(p.157) Appendix

(p.157) Appendix

Source:
Blaming Europe?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Table A.1. EU responsibility for interest rates, immigration, the economy, and healthcare—public perceptions

Country

Responsibility for the economy

Responsibility for healthcare

Responsibility for immigration

Responsibility for interest rates

Austria

5.6

4.5

5.5

5.8

Belgium

5.6

5.1

6.1

5.8

Bulgaria

5.0

4.0

4.8

4.6

Cyprus

5.9

5.2

6.6

5.6

Czech Republic

6.0

4.6

6.4

5.5

Denmark

5.0

3.8

5.6

5.5

Estonia

4.5

4.2

4.7

4.9

Finland

5.9

5.0

6.3

6.6

France

5.9

4.7

6.4

6.6

Germany

5.2

3.9

5.1

5.0

Greece

6.4

4.6

7.0

6.6

Hungary

6.1

5.3

6.3

6.5

Ireland

5.3

4.1

5.7

7.3

Italy

6.2

5.1

7.1

6.7

Latvia

6.0

5.2

5.8

6.1

Lithuania

5.9

5.2

5.9

6.0

Luxembourg

5.7

5.1

5.9

6.2

Malta

6.4

6.1

6.3

6.2

Netherlands

6.2

5.3

6.6

6.1

Poland

5.7

4.4

5.7

5.4

Portugal

5.9

4.9

6.2

6.9

Romania

5.6

5.1

5.4

5.5

Slovakia

5.9

5.1

6.2

5.9

Slovenia

5.4

4.5

5.4

6.1

Spain

6.4

5.0

6.8

7.3

Sweden

4.8

3.6

5.2

3.9

UK

5.5

4.0

6.4

4.0

Mean

5.7

4.7

6.0

5.9

Note: This figure displays mean scores on the 0–10 scale of EU responsibility for the public for each EU country. The mean weights all 27 EU countries equally.

Data: EES 2009 voter survey.

(p.158)

Table A.2. The selective attribution of responsibility for the economy, healthcare, immigration, and interest rates by EU supporters and EU opponents (see Figure 4.1)

Economy

Healthcare

Immigration

Interest rates

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Intercept

6.21

0.11

***

5.91

0.12

***

6.34

0.12

***

6.12

0.21

***

Performance evaluation

–0.05

0.04

–0.04

0.05

0.00

0.05

0.02

0.04

EU supporter

0.31

0.06

***

0.13

0.05

**

0.10

0.05

*

0.14

0.05

**

EU opponent

0.00

0.07

–0.24

0.06

***

0.01

0.06

0.05

0.06

EU supporter × evaluation

0.16

0.04

***

0.04

0.05

–0.04

0.05

–0.02

0.04

EU opponent × evaluation

0.02

0.05

–0.09

0.05

*

–0.21

0.05

***

0.00

0.04

Political knowledge

–0.14

0.01

***

–0.29

0.01

***

–0.10

0.01

***

–0.07

0.01

***

Government party ID

0.00

0.07

0.04

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.02

0.06

No party ID

–0.16

0.07

**

0.01

0.05

–0.06

0.06

–0.02

0.06

Govt. PID × evaluation

–0.02

0.05

0.09

0.06

–0.08

0.06

0.01

0.04

No PID × evaluation

–0.04

0.05

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.10

0.04

**

N (group)

27

27

27

27

N (individual)

22, 223

20, 712

17, 695

17, 089

Note: This table shows four multilevel linear regression models predicting scores on the 0–10 scale of EU responsibility for four different policy areas.

(***) p〈.01

(**) p〈.05

(*) p〈.10, two-tailed test.

Data: EES 2009 voter survey.

(p.159)

Table A.3. The selective attribution of responsibility for the economy and healthcare in Britain by EU supporters and EU opponents from experimental data (see Figure 4.4)

Economy

Healthcare

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Intercept

6.32

0.25

***

5.22

0.28

***

Treatment (performance better)

0.18

0.27

–0.36

0.30

EU supporter

–0.71

0.27

**

–0.31

0.30

EU opponent

1.36

0.21

***

–0.27

0.23

EU supporter × treatment

–0.10

0.38

0.51

0.41

EU opponent × treatment

–0.77

0.31

***

–0.82

0.33

***

Political interest

–0.31

0.07

***

–0.38

0.08

***

Government party ID

–0.25

0.20

0.12

0.22

No party ID

0.03

0.41

0.27

0.33

Govt. PID × treatment

0.02

0.29

0.35

0.30

No PID × treatment

–0.49

0.53

–0.24

0.47

Adjusted R-square

0.11

0.07

N

1, 232

1, 180

Note: This table shows two linear regression models predicting scores on the 0–10 scale of EU responsibility for two different policy areas.

(***) p〈.01

(**) p〈.05

* p〈.10, two-tailed test.

Data: British experimental data 2009.

(p.160)

Table A.4. The impact of exposure to EU stories in the media on EU responsibility (see Figure 6.1)

Economy

Healthcare

Immigration

Interest rates

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Intercept

6.03

0.12

***

6.55

0.15

***

5.73

0.14

***

5.74

0.19

***

Exposure to press EU coverage

–1.34

0.36

***

-0.83

0.40

**

–1.27

0.40

***

–0.84

0.41

**

Exposure to TV EU coverage

0.57

0.25

**

0.67

0.29

**

0.80

0.29

***

0.05

0.30

Education

–0.07

0.01

***

–0.04

0.02

***

–0.18

0.02

***

0.00

0.02

Political interest

–0.08

0.02

***

–0.11

0.02

***

–0.24

0.02

***

–0.07

0.02

***

Performance evaluation

–0.01

0.02

–0.07

0.02

***

–0.02

0.02

0.05

0.02

***

Government approval

0.02

0.04

0.01

0.04

0.03

0.04

–0.08

0.04

*

EU support

0.03

0.01

***

0.00

0.01

0.05

0.01

***

0.02

0.01

**

N (group)

27

27

27

27

N (individual)

25, 163

25, 163

25, 163

25, 163

Note: This table shows four multilevel linear regression models predicting scores on the 0–10 scale of EU responsibility for four different policy areas.

(***) p〈.01

(**) p〈.05

(*) p〈.10, two-tailed test.

Data: EES 2009 Media Study and EES 2009 voter survey.

(p.161)

Table A.5. The impact of EU visibility in the media on correct assignments of EU responsibility (see Figure 6.2)

Economy

Healthcare

Immigration

Interest rates

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Intercept

–3.00

0.09

***

–4.29

0.10

***

–4.25

0.11

***

–3.41

0.13

***

Exposure to press EU coverage

0.77

0.23

***

0.97

0.28

***

1.38

0.29

***

0.87

0.30

***

Exposure to TV EU coverage

0.21

0.16

–0.14

0.20

–0.35

0.21

*

0.00

0.22

Education

0.09

0.01

***

0.07

0.01

***

0.16

0.01

***

0.08

0.01

***

Political interest

0.01

0.01

0.04

0.02

**

0.13

0.02

***

0.06

0.02

***

Performance evaluation

0.05

0.01

***

0.12

0.02

***

0.07

0.02

***

0.08

0.01

***

Government approval

0.11

0.02

***

0.07

0.03

**

0.03

0.03

0.09

0.03

***

EU support

0.02

0.00

***

0.02

0.01

***

–0.02

0.01

***

0.01

0.01

***

N (group)

27

27

27

27

N (individual)

25, 163

25, 163

25, 163

25, 163

Note: This table shows four multilevel linear regression models predicting scores on the 0–10 scale of EU responsibility for four different policy areas.

(***) p〈.01

(**) p〈.05

(*) p〈.10, two-tailed test.

Data: EES 2009 Media Study and EES 2009 voter survey.

(p.162)

Table A.6. The impact on correct assignments of responsibility for the economy of (a) exposure to media coverage of EU economic responsibility and (b) general media coverage of the economy (see Figure 6.3)

(a) Responsibility for the economy coverage

(b) General economic coverage

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Intercept

–2.71

0.09

***

–2.99

0.09

***

Exposure to press EU economic responsibility

0.83

0.27

***

Exposure to TV EU economic responsibility

–0.36

0.84

Exposure to press general economic coverage

0.93

0.24

***

Exposure to TV general economic coverage

–0.01

0.21

Education

0.09

0.01

***

0.09

0.01

***

Political interest

0.04

0.01

***

0.01

0.01

Performance evaluation

0.04

0.01

***

0.05

0.01

***

Government approval

0.11

0.02

***

0.11

0.02

***

EU support

0.02

0.00

***

0.02

0.00

***

N (group)

27

27

N (individual)

25, 163

25, 163

Note: This table shows two multilevel linear regression models predicting national expert evaluations of responsibility to the EU on the 0–10 scale of EU responsibility for the economy.

(***) p〈.01

** p〈.05

* p〈.10, two-tailed test.

Data: EES 2009 Media Study and EES 2009 voter survey.

(p.163)

Table A.7. The impact of changing economic and healthcare evaluations on support for governing parties (see Figure 8.1)

Low clarity countries

Medium clarity countries

High clarity countries

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Coef.

SE

Intercept

2.46

0.09

***

2.98

0.11

***

2.27

0.09

***

Economic performance evaluation

–0.05

0.05

0.18

0.04

***

0.23

0.05

***

EU responsibility for the economy

0.25

0.10

**

0.02

0.08

–0.19

0.10

**

Economic performance × responsibility

0.13

0.06

**

0.12

0.05

**

0.17

0.07

***

Healthcare performance evaluation

0.20

0.05

***

0.27

0.04

***

0.40

0.06

***

EU responsibility for healthcare

0.53

0.08

***

0.14

0.06

***

0.25

0.08

***

Health performance × responsibility

0.17

0.07

**

0.10

0.05

*

0.16

0.07

**

Government party ID

2.32

0.07

***

2.90

0.07

***

5.75

0.09

***

No party ID

1.03

0.07

***

1.20

0.06

***

1.93

0.07

***

N (group)

8

11

8

N (individual)

6, 912

9, 517

6, 640

Note: This table shows three multilevel linear regression models predicting average support for incumbent governing parties on a 0–10 scale.

(***) p〈.01

(**) p〈.05

(*) p〈.10, two-tailed test.

Data: EES 2009 voter survey.

(p.164)

Table A.8. The impact of policy evaluations on support for the EPP in European Parliament elections, by assessments of EU responsibility (see Figure 8.2)

EPP vote

Coef

SE

Intercept

–0.75

0.18

***

Economic performance evaluation

0.07

0.04

*

EU responsibility for the economy

–0.05

0.04

Economic performance × responsibility

0.03

0.07

Healthcare performance evaluation

0.04

0.04

EU responsibility for healthcare

0.03

0.09

Health performance × responsibility

–0.04

0.08

General EU support

0.02

0.01

*

EPP partisan

3.14

0.08

***

Other partisan

–2.43

0.08

***

N (group)

27

N (individual)

11, 021

Note: This table shows a multilevel logistic regression model predicting votes cast at the 2009 European election for parties that are members of the EPP group.

(***) p〈.01

** p〈.05

(*) p〈.10, two-tailed test.Data: EES 2009 voter survey.

Table A.9. The impact of policy evaluations on trust in EU institutions, by assessments of EU responsibility (see Figure 8.3)

Trust in EU institutions

Coef.

SE

Intercept

–0.49

0.09

***

Economic performance evaluation

0.07

0.02

***

EU responsibility for the economy

–0.12

0.06

**

Economic performance × responsibility

0.09

0.04

**

Healthcare performance evaluation

0.24

0.02

***

EU responsibility for healthcare

0.08

0.05

*

Health performance × responsibility

0.08

0.04

**

General EU support

0.14

0.01

***

N (group)

27

N (individual)

22, 058

Note: This table shows a multilevel logistic regression model predicting whether people agree that they trust EU institutions or not at the time of the 2009 European election.

(***) p〈.01

(**) p〈.05

(*) p〈.10, two-tailed test.

Data: EES 2009 voter survey.