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Early Days of X-ray Crystallography$
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André Authier

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199659845

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001

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X‐Rays as a Branch of Optics

X‐Rays as a Branch of Optics

(p.213) 9 X‐Rays as a Branch of Optics
Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

André Authier

Oxford University Press

This chapter is devoted to optical properties of X-rays. In the first section the early measurements of optical properties of X-rays are discussed briefly (specular reflection, refraction, diffraction by a slit). In the ensuing sections the principle of the Ewald and Laue dynamical theories of X-ray diffraction is presented. The special optical properties of X-ray wavefields are described, such as their direction of propagation inside the crystal, anomalous absorption, and standing waves, as well as their application to the Kossel effect and the location of impurities at crystal surfaces. It is shown how the deviation from Bragg’s law, which is due to the effect of refraction, was measured experimentally, and the principle of the double-crystal spectrometer is given. The discovery of the Compton effect is also related, and its consequences as to the nature of X-rays are discussed.

Keywords:   Compton effect, double-crystal spectrometer, dynamical theory of diffraction, Ewald, Kossel effect, refraction, Laue, standing wave, total reflection, wavefield

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