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Early Days of X-ray Crystallography$
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André Authier

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199659845

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001

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1913: The First Steps

1913: The First Steps

Chapter:
(p.130) 7 1913: The First Steps
Source:
Early Days of X-ray Crystallography
Author(s):

André Authier

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0007

This chapter relates the first steps of X-ray crystallography in 1913. It starts with a brief account of the flock of experiments in England and Germany, prompted by Bragg’s experiment with mica. It then tells how Wulff, Laue himself, Ewald, and Friedel interpreted Laue’s relations in terms of the reflection by a set of lattice planes. Laue admitted his early misconceptions and gave a correct interpretation of Friedrich and Knipping’s experiment. The chapter proceeds on with Terada’s and Nishikawa’s early experiments in Japan, and de Broglie’s experiments in France. In England, W. H. Bragg developed the ionization spectrometer, and W. L. Bragg made the first crystal structure determinations. Moseley determined the high-frequency spectra of the elements and established its relations with the atomic numbers. In Zürich, Debye derived the influence of thermal agitation on the intensity of diffracted intensities. In France, de Broglie introduced the rotating crystal method, and Friedel related X-ray diffraction and crystal symmetry. In the United States, the first X-ray spectrometer was built in 1914.

Keywords:   Bragg, crystal structures, de Broglie, Debye, Friedel’s law, ionization spectrometer, Laue, Moseley’s law, rotating crystal method

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