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Early Days of X-ray Crystallography$
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André Authier

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199659845

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001

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The Birth and Rise of the Space‐Lattice Concept

The Birth and Rise of the Space‐Lattice Concept

(p.318) 12 The Birth and Rise of the Space‐Lattice Concept
Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

André Authier

Oxford University Press

This chapter is devoted to the development of the concept of space lattice during the nineteenth century. The starting point was the establishment of the law of decrements (law of rationality) by Haüy. Weiss and Mohs introduced the concept of crystal systems, and Brewster showed the relations between the optical and crystal systems. Weiss and Neumann introduced crystal indices, and their present notation is due to Whewell and his student, Miller. The notion of crystal lattices was further established by Seeber and Delafosse. Frankenheim and Hessel enumerated the thirty-two crystal classes. The geometrical and symmetry properties of crystal lattices were derived by Bravais, who found fourteen types of lattice. Sohncke determined the sixty-five proper groups of motion, or space groups, and Schoenflies and Fedorov the 230 space groups. The interpretation of the structure of crystals as a close packing of spheres or ellipsoids was developed first by Wollaston and in greater detail by Barlow.

Keywords:   Bravais lattices, close packing, crystals, Fedorov, Haüy, law of rationality, Schoenflies, Sohncke, space, Weiss

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