Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Early Days of X-ray Crystallography$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

André Authier

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199659845

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy).date: 24 April 2019

Early Applications of X‐Ray Crystallography

Early Applications of X‐Ray Crystallography

(p.230) 10 Early Applications of X‐Ray Crystallography
Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

André Authier

Oxford University Press

The early applications of X-ray crystallography in different fields of science in the period up to 1913 are described. Chemistry: the first crystal structure determinations shed a new light on the nature of chemical bonds in solids and led to Goldschmidt’s and Pauling’s rules; the benzene ring was shown to be planar. Metallurgy: the crystal structures of many elements and alloys were determined, and accurate phase diagrams established; preliminary studies were made of annealing and cold-working. Mineralogy: the crystal structures of many minerals were determined and, most importantly, the classification of silicates was established. Physics: the existence of zero-point energy, predicted by Planck, was confirmed; Planck’s constant, h, was determined with high accuracy; preliminary structural interpretation of the piezoelectricity of quartz was made. Biochemistry: the structure of natural fibres and, in particular, of keratin was analysed. X-ray spectroscopy expanded rapidly, experimentally with de Broglie, Wagner, and the Siegbahn school, and theoretically with Kossel and Sommerfeld.

Keywords:   chemistry, classification of silicates, Goldschmidt’s rules, Kossel, mineralogy, Pauling’s rules, Siegbahn, Sommerfeld, X-ray spectroscopy, zero-point energy

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .