This chapter analyses what are known as interpersonal or group emotions. The chapter considers the forms of community that were thought to have cultivated the most ideal interpersonal and group emotions: the various civil society groups identified in eighteenth-century British encyclopedias as existing in ‘civilized nations’; the forms of blood community prioritized in German reference works in the nineteenth century; as well as the family, educational institutions and ‘optional communities’, which were valorized in both countries in the twentieth century as incubators of healthy interpersonal emotions such as empathy. Similar attention is paid to the social formations that allegedly produced harmful group emotions: not only whole societies beyond Europe deemed not to be civilized in the eighteenth century, but also groupings within ‘civilized’ European societies since the late nineteenth century, such as the urbanized and politicized masses, which were supposedly characterized by their outbursts of irrational collective emotions.
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