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Brain Drain and Brain GainThe Global Competition to Attract High-Skilled Migrants$

Tito Boeri, Herbert Brücker, Frédéric Docquier, and Hillel Rapoport

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199654826

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654826.001.0001

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(p.309) Index

(p.309) Index

Source:
Brain Drain and Brain Gain
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
academic degrees50–1, 52, 226
annual wage incomes62
Algeria104, 228
Argentina226
Armenia226
assimilation of immigrants60–3
attitudes to skilled immigration130–44, 158–61, 163, 164
determinants of143
economic and non-economic determinants136
pro-immigration122–4, 133–4, 141, 142
Australia104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
Employer Nomination Scheme Occupation List27
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates97
skilled immigration26–7
attitudes to164
Skilled Occupation List27
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 41, 47, 104
Austria104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Azerbaijan226
Bahrain
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Bangladesh104
brain drain224
science graduates226
skilled workers222
Battle for Brains18, 169–83, 202–3
model of175–82
beggar-my-neighbour policies12
Belarus222
Belgium104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates227
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates97
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 104
benefit adjustment model131, 132, 160
Benin
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Bertoli, Simone8
Bhagwati tax284–7
blue card17, 20, 30, 169–70
Bolivia
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
science graduates228
Bologna process29
Bosnia-Herzegovina104
Botswana
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
(p.310) brain drain9, 18, 213–32
beneficial172
country of training223–5
fiscal impact172–3
geographic distribution216–19
health professionals229–31, 227
human capital effects172–5, 238–49
incentives to migrate244, 246
institutional effects261–7
measures of214–20
policy issues277–89
productivity effects254–61
and recession6–7
scientists225–8, 227
screening selection250–4
South-South migration220–2
brain gain21
economic effects
benefits186–7
business downturn121–4
productivity effects112–24 see also skilled immigration
Brazil104
brain drain224
science graduates226, 228
Bruecker, Herbert8
Bulgaria104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
skilled immigration, attitudes to163, 164
Burkina Faso
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Burundi222
Cambodia104
brain drain224
science graduates226, 228
Cameroon226, 227
Canada104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain216
science graduates226, 228
foreign students57, 58
immigration rates98
points system25–6
skilled immigration25–6
attitudes to163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
academic degrees51, 52
emigrants47
immigrants40, 41, 47, 51, 52, 104
native population51
wage income
by occupation65
by skill group65
PhD graduates62, 63
Cape Verde242
capital accumulation111–12, 125
Chad222
Chile104
brain drain of science graduates228
skilled immigration, attitudes to164
China104
brain drain216, 224
science graduates226, 228
Cobb-Douglas production function108–9
Colombia104, 226, 228
Congo224
Costa Rica228
Cote d’Ivoire227
countries of originsee source countries of immigrants
Croatia104, 226, 228
Cuba104
brain drain224
science graduates226
Cyprus104, 226, 228
Czech Republic
brain drain, science graduates226, 228
foreign students57, 58
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Denmark104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates228
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates98
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 104
developing countries
brain drain to Europe283
science graduates228
Docquier, Frédéric8
Dominican Republic104
(p.311) economic performance234–76
human capital accumulation172–5, 238–49
institutions261–7
international transfers272–6
productivitysee productivity
screening selection250–4 see also GDP
economic recession
effects of skilled immigration121–4
immigration policy during287–9
Ecuador104, 228
education
and attitude to immigration137–8
implications for countries of origin278–80
and migration prospects176–9
tertiarysee tertiary education
Egypt
brain drain224
non-skilled workers222
science graduates226
skilled workers222
El Salvador104
emigration4
and educational status137–8
employer-driven immigration24, 25
USA29
employment111–12, 126
and immigration125
top occupations, immigrant representation51–4
Estonia226, 228
Ethiopia104, 226, 228
European Social Survey141
European Union11
blue card17, 20, 30, 169–70
brain drain from developing countries283
skilled immigration29–33 see also individual countries
Facchini, Giovanni8
Fiji104, 242
Finland104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti8
foreign direct investment265
foreign students57, 58
competition for54–60
field of study58–9
France104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates99
skilled immigration, attitudes to150, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
academic degrees52
emigrants47
immigrants40, 41, 47, 52, 104
Frederiksen, Claus Hjort2
Friedman, Milton182
GDP126, 162, 235–8
prediction of237–8
Georgia
brain drain
science graduates226
skilled workers222
Germany104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain216
science graduates226, 228
foreign students57
immigration rates99
skilled immigration31–2
attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
academic degrees51
emigrants47
immigrants40, 41, 47, 51, 104
native population51
Ghana104, 226
Gini coefficients79, 207
global governance10–12
global pool of skilled labour47–50
global trends in skilled immigration36–65 see also individual countries
Great Britainsee UK
Great Depression1, 6
Great Recession6–7
Greece104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration, attitudes to142
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
(p.312) tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Guatemala104, 228
Guinea
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Guyana104
H1B visa programme29, 35, 152–6
Haiti104
health professionals229–31, 227
highly skilled immigrantssee skilled immigration
Honduras104, 226
Hong Kong104, 228
human capital accumulation172–5, 238–49
Hungary104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Iceland104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
illegal immigration7
immigrant populations
assimilation into host labour market60–3
source countries104
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education40, 41, 47
academic degrees51, 52
in top occupations51–4
immigrant-driven migration24–5
immigration
demand for176
economic benefits21
effects of200
in economic crisis121–4
on labour force109
on productivity106–26
illegal7
negative perceptions2
skill-selectivesee skilled immigration
immigration flows66–105
by education level73
empirical model68–70
Great Recession6–7
labour market regulation88, 90–1
as percentage of population72
R&D spending91–3
wage variables79–80
and welfare generosity81, 87–8, 89
immigration laws74–9, 85–7, 105
immigration policy11, 23–35, 144–9, 174, 281–4
changes at destination179–82
classification24–5
determination of129
economic crisis287–9
employer-driven immigration24, 25, 29
median voter model144–5, 147–8, 149–52
points-based systemssee points-based systems
political economy model127–68
pressure group model145–9, 152–6
shifts in188
immigration rates97–103
income
academic degree holders62, 63
and attitude to immigration137–8
by occupation65
by skill group65
source countries of immigrants44
India104, 215–16, 224
Indonesia
brain drain224
science graduates228
institutional effects of brain drain261–7
endogenous transaction costs261–3
international factor mobility146–9
International Migration Dataset71
international transfers272–6
Iran104, 226
Iraq104
Ireland104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
(p.313) tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Israel
brain drain of science graduates226
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 164
Italy104
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57
Martelli law32
skilled immigration32–3
attitudes to142, 150, 163
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Jamaica104
Japan104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates226, 227
foreign students57
immigration rates100
skilled immigration, attitudes to163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 104
Jensen, Siv2
Jordan
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
science graduates226
skilled workers222
Kazakhstan227
Kenya104, 224
knowledge spillover2
Korea104
brain drain216
science graduates226, 229
foreign students57
skilled immigration, attitudes to164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Kuwait
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
science graduates228
skilled workers222
labour markets
assimilation of skilled immigrants60–3
regulation88, 90–1
labour mobility172–5
global pool of skilled labour47–50
Laos104
Latvia
brain drain of science graduates228
skilled immigration, attitudes to163, 164
Lebanon104, 226
Lesotho
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Liberia222
Lithuania227
lobbying145–9
lottery ticket effect172, 178
Luxembourg
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates228
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates100
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 104
Macao226
Macedonia228
Madagascar228
Malaysia104
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
science graduates228
skilled workers222
Mali
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Malta228
Maroni, Roberto2
Mayda, Anna Maria8
median voter immigration policy144–5, 147–8, 149–52
Megret, Catherine2
(p.314) Mexico104
brain drain216, 220, 242–3
science graduates226, 228
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
minimum wage81
mobility of labour172–5
Moldova222
Morocco104
Mozambique
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Myanmar228
Namibia
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Nepal228
Netherlands104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain, science graduates228
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates101
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
academic degrees52
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 52, 104
New Zealand104
brain drain, science graduates228
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
points system27–8
skilled immigration27–8
attitudes to163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Nicaragua104
Niger
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Nigeria104
brain drain224
science graduates226
non-OECD destinations222
Norway104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates228
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates101
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 104
OECD countries17–19, 37–47
academic degrees51, 52
immigration flows72–3
immigration laws74–9
skilled immigration38–40
determinants of66–105
origins of43
productivity effects106–26
skills-based selection40–3
source countries44, 45
tertiary education40, 41, 47 see also individual countries
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developmentsee OECD
Pakistan104, 228
Palau222
Panama226, 229
Paraguay
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
science graduates229
Peri, Giovanni8
Peru104
Philippines104
brain drain215, 224
science graduates226
higher education241–2
skilled immigration, attitudes to163, 164
points-based systems3, 9, 24–5
bonus points3
Canada25–6
(p.315) New Zealand27–8
UK31
Poland104
brain drain, science graduates226
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration, attitudes to163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
policy issues277–89
economic crisis287–9
education278–80
immigration policy11, 144–9, 174, 281–4
taxation284–7
politics of immigration127–68, 200–1
immigration policy11, 144–9
individual attitudes130–44
Portugal104
brain drain of science graduates228
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
pressure group immigration policy145–9, 152–6
price impact of immigration133–4
pro-immigration attitudes122–4, 133–4, 141, 142
pro-immigration lobbies145–6
productivity126
brain drain effects254–61
brain gain effects108–24
endogenous254–7
Lodigiani model260
Lucas model260–1
and worker education235
R&D spending91–3
Rapoport, Hillel8
remittances272–6
research and developmentsee R&D spending
Romania104, 226, 229
ruling class4–5
Russia104
brain drain of science graduates226, 229
skilled immigration, attitudes to163, 164
Sarazzin, Thilo2
Saudi Arabia226
science graduates225–8
screening selection250–4
and economic performance250
Silimbergo, Antonio4
Singapore228
skill composition of immigrants137–8, 162
skill level and wages18
skill-downgrading38, 54
skilled immigration2–3, 17–18, 19, 20, 23–35
attitudes to130–44, 158–61, 163, 164
attraction of immigrants34–5
benefit adjustment model131, 132, 160
current trends185–6
determinants of66–105
European Union29–33
global pool47–50
global trends36–65
lack of support for187–8
losers188–9
OECD countries38–40
policy shifts184–5
policy tools24–5, 34–5
politics of127–68, 200–1
and proportion of educated residents248, 249
ruling class4–5
tax adjustment model131, 132, 160
traditional immigration countries25–9
Australia26–7
Canada25–6
New Zealand27–8
skills-based selection of immigrants40–3
Slovakia
brain drain of science graduates226, 228
foreign students57, 58
skilled immigration, attitudes to163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Slovenia104
brain drain of science graduates226, 229
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
Somalia104
source countries of immigrants43, 104
by income level44
by region45
education policy278–80
South Africa104, 229
(p.316) South-South migration220–2
Spain104
brain drain, science graduates226
foreign students57, 58
Foreigners Law (1985)33
immigrants in top posts53
skilled immigration33
attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
academic degrees51, 52
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 51, 52
native population51
Sri Lanka104, 229
Strache, Heinz-Christian2
Sudan222
Suriname104
Swaziland
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Sweden104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates226, 229
foreign students57, 58
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates102
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education, immigrants40, 47, 104
Switzerland
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain of science graduates226, 229
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates102
skilled immigration, attitudes to142, 150, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47, 104
Taiwan164
Tanzania226
tax adjustment model131, 132, 160
taxation policy284–7
tertiary education
academic degrees50–1, 52, 226
annual wage incomes62
by country group48
by country income49
competition for foreign students54–60
emigrants47
immigrants40, 41, 47, 104
academic degrees50–1, 226
native population50
Thailand104, 229
Togo222
Tonga242
top occupations, immigrant representation51–4
total factor productivity108–10, 111
Trinidad and Tobago226
Tunisia104, 226, 229
Turkey104
brain drain224
science graduates226, 229
foreign students57
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
emigrants47
immigrants40, 47
Uganda222
UK104
attraction for immigrants105
brain drain215, 224
science graduates226, 229
foreign students57
immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates103
points system31
skilled immigration31
attitudes to142, 150, 163, 164
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
academic degrees52
emigrants47
immigrants40, 41, 47, 52, 104
Tier 1 programme31
Tier 2 programme31
Ukraine
brain drain
science graduates226
skilled workers222
Uruguay
brain drain of science graduates226, 229
skilled immigration, attitudes to164
USA104
attraction for immigrants105
foreign students57
H1B visa programme29, 35, 152–6
(p.317) immigrants in top posts53
immigration rates103
skilled immigration28–9
attitudes to163, 164
science graduates226, 227
source countries of immigrants
by income level44
by region45
tertiary education
academic degrees51, 52
emigrants47
immigrants40, 41, 47, 51, 52, 104, 226
native population51
wage income
by occupation65
by skill group65
PhD graduates62, 63
Uzbekistan226
Venezuela
brain drain of science graduates229
skilled immigration, attitudes to164
Vietnam104
brain drain216
science graduates229
wage rates79–80
by occupation65
by skill group63, 65
as driver of skilled migration186
geographical variation82–5
minimum wage81
PhD graduates62
and skill level18
welfare benefits81, 87–8, 89
West Bank and Gaza
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
work permits, time to obtain4–5
xenophobia2, 7
Yemen
brain drain
non-skilled workers222
skilled workers222
Zaire104
Zimbabwe222