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Catch UpDeveloping Countries in the World Economy$

Deepak Nayyar

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199652983

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652983.001.0001

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(p.186) Appendix Statistical Sources and Notes

(p.186) Appendix Statistical Sources and Notes

Source:
Catch Up
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.186) Appendix

Statistical Sources and Notes

Chapter 2

Tables 2.1 to 2.5 and Figures 2.1 to 2.2

These tables and figures are based on the historical statistics compiled by Maddison on GDP and population, which have been published in several monographs or books (1995, 2001, 2003, and 2007) but have been revised from time to time. The complete statistical series that incorporates revisions is available on the Maddison Online Database (http://www.ggdc.net.MADDISON/oriindex.htm). The statistics presented in the tables and used in the figures are based on the author’s calculations from this online database. GDP and GDP per capita are measured, in PPP terms, in 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars. The composition of the country-groups is as follows. Western Europe includes Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Guernsey, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Jersey, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Western Offshoots includes the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Eastern Europe includes Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Former USSR includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The West includes Western Europe, Western Offshoots, Eastern Europe, Former USSR, and Japan. The Rest includes Africa, Asia (except Japan), and Latin America.

Tables 2.1 and 2.3

For the years 1000, 1500, 1600 and 1700:

In the population estimates, the coverage of regions and countries is as follows. Asia excludes Japan (for which there is a separate estimate) and includes China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, and Turkey, with a residual estimate for other countries in the region. Africa includes Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Madagascar, Morocco, Mozambique, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, and Tunisia, with a residual estimate for other countries in the region. Latin America includes Brazil, Mexico, and Peru, with a residual estimate for other countries in the region. The coverage is almost complete for Western Europe (30 countries), Western Offshoots (4 countries) and Eastern Europe (7 countries). Former USSR is an estimate for the region as a whole.

(p.187) In the GDP estimates, the coverage of regions and countries is as follows. Asia excludes Japan (for which there is a separate estimate) and includes China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran, Iraq, and Turkey, with a residual estimate for other countries in the region. Africa includes Egypt and Morocco with a residual estimate for other countries in the region. Latin America includes Brazil and Mexico with a residual estimate for other countries in the region. Eastern Europe and former USSR are simply estimates for the regions as a whole. But the coverage is complete for Western Europe (30 countries) and Western Offshoots (4 countries).

For the year 1820: The coverage for Western Europe, Western Offshoots, Eastern Europe, former USSR and Japan is the same as in the earlier years. But it is far better for the other three regions as compared with the earlier years. In population estimates, there are 55 countries in Asia, 11 countries in Africa, and 44 countries in Latin America, with residual estimates for other countries in the regions. In GDP estimates, there are 47 countries in Asia, 6 countries in Africa and 26 countries in Latin America, with residual estimates for other countries in the regions.

Table 2.2

For both population and GDP estimates in this table, the coverage, in terms of the number of countries in each of the regions, in 1870 and 1913 is almost the same as in 1820 (specified above). For Asia, Africa and Latin America, it was smaller in 1900 and 1940, but larger in 1950.

Table 2.6

The estimates of manufacturing production in this table are based on physical output estimates for different sectors, averaged over a period of three or five years, weighted by the contribution of each sector in a particular country to obtain an aggregate index for countries and country-groups using industrial output in the United Kingdom in 1900 as the base of 100.

Table 2.7

This table is based on an unpublished paper, ‘International Trade Statistics 1900–1960’,prepared by the Statistical Office of the United Nations in May 1962. It is available from the United Nations Statistics Division website unstats.un.org. The statistics on the value of exports from, and imports into, Asia, Africa, and Latin America in this table, include the following country-groups or regions: Latin America Dollar Area, Latin America Non-Dollar Area, Burma, Ceylon, India, Pakistan, Middle East, Other Countries, Other Middle East, Mainland China, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Other Far East. The coverage of the developing world is obviously not complete but it does provide a reasonable approximation. The value of total exports from countries and regions included in the table was $18,902 million in 1953. International trade statistics published by the United Nations, which are complete, report that the value of total exports from developing countries in 1953 was $23,345 million.

(p.188) Chapter 4

Tables 4.1 to 4.2 and Figures 4.1 to 4.3

These tables and figures are based on the historical statistics available from the Maddison Online Database (http://www.ggdc.net.MADDISON/oriindex.htm). The statistics presented in the tables and used in the figures are based on the author’s calculations from this online database. GDP and GDP per capita are measured, in PPP terms, in 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars. The group of developing countries is made up of Africa, Asia excluding Japan, and Latin America including the Caribbean. The group of industrialized countries is made up of: (a) Western Europe (Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Guernsey, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Jersey, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom); (b) North America (Canada and the United States); (c) Oceania (Australia and New Zealand); and (d) Japan. Eastern Europe and former USSR is made of the erstwhile centrally planned economies and present transition economies of Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic and Slovakia), Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia (now Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia), and the countries of the former USSR (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan). The group of ‘Developing Countries’ constituted by Africa, Asia and Latin America in these tables and figures corresponds exactly to the country-group described as ‘The Rest’ in Chapter 2. However, the group of countries termed ‘The West’ in Chapter 2 is not used any further. Instead, it is disaggregated into two groups: (i) the group of ‘Industrialized Countries’, in these tables and figures, as also in the rest of the book, which is constituted by North America, Western Europe, Japan and Oceania; and (ii) the group ‘Eastern Europe and former USSR’, which is constituted by the erstwhile centrally-planned economies and the present transition economies of Europe.

Tables 4.4 to 4.5 and Figures 4.4 to 4.6

These tables and figures are based on United Nations National Accounts Statistics as reported in UNCTAD Stat. Developing Countries are made up of Africa, Asia excluding Japan, and Latin America including the Caribbean. Industrialized Countries are made up of North America, Western Europe, Japan, and Oceania. Eastern Europe and former USSR is made up of the erstwhile centrally-planned economies and present transition economies in Europe. The data on GDP and GDP per capita are in US dollars in current prices and at market exchange rates. The statistics presented in the tables and used in the figures are based on the author’s calculations.

Tables 4.6 and 4.7

The Maddison data on GDP and GDP per capita in 1990 international Geary-Khamis PPP dollars are obtained from the Maddison Online database. The United Nations data on GDP and GDP per capita in 1990 US dollars are obtained from UN National (p.189) Accounts Main Aggregates Database, Statistics Division, with population statistics from World Population Prospects, The 2008 Revision, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York. The Maddison data and UN data on GDP and GDP per capita are not strictly comparable. The statistics in these tables cover 129 countries, of which 21 are industrialized countries (the original OECD member countries) and 108 developing countries. The average annual growth rates for each of the periods in the table are computed as geometric means of the annual growth rates in the respective periods.

Table 4.8

The United Nations data on GDP and GDP per capita in 1990 US dollars and 2005 US dollars are both obtained from the same sources as for Tables 4.6 and 4.7 above. The statistics on GDP and GDP per capita starting 2008 are in 2005 US dollars. The average annual growth rates, for the period 2001–2008, for both the 1990 and 2005 dollars series in the table are computed as geometric means of the annual growth rates. These two sets of figures are almost the same so that the two series are comparable. The growth rates for 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 are annual growth rates in each year over the preceding year.

Chapter 5

Table 5.6

The figures for sales and purchases in cross-border mergers and acquisitions in this table are calculated on a net basis as follows. Sales are sales of companies in the host country to foreign transnational firms minus sales of foreign affiliates in the host country. Purchases are purchases of companies abroad by domestic transnational firms minus sales of foreign affiliates of domestic transnational firms abroad. The data cover only those transactions that involve an acquisition of an equity share of more than 10 per cent. The data refer to net sales by the country or region of the acquired company, and net purchases by the country or region of the ultimate acquiring company.

Chapter 6

Tables 6.3 to 6.4 and Figure 6.1

These tables and the figure are based on United Nations statistical sources. For data on manufacturing value added at constant prices: (a) 1960 to 1980 at 1975 prices, UNIDO (1981); (b) 1975 to 1991 at 1980 prices, from UNIDO International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics, 1995 and 1997; and (c) 1990 to 2010 at 2000 prices, UNIDO Secretariat, Vienna. For data on manufacturing value added at current prices, during the period from 1970 to 2010, United Nations, from UNCTADStat, based on UN National Accounts Statistics. The percentages in the table and the figure at constant prices for each of the three series have been calculated from data on respective US dollar values in 1975, 1980 and 2000 prices. For the series in current prices, the percentages have been calculated from US dollar values at current prices and current exchange rates. Similarly, in Table 6.4, with disaggregated figures on manufacturing value added in Asia, Africa (p.190) and Latin America, the percentages have been calculated from US dollar values in current prices at market exchange rates.

Tables 6.5 to 6.6 and Figure 6.2

For data on the value of manufactured exports, in US dollars at current prices and exchange rates: (a) for the period from 1960 to 1999, United Nations, Yearbooks of International Trade Statistics, various annual issues; and (b) for the period from 2000 to 2010, United Nations, UNCTAD Stat. In this table, manufactured goods are defined as the sum of SITC 5 (chemicals), SITC 6 (manufactured goods), SITC 7 (machinery and transport equipment) and SITC 8 (miscellaneous manufactured articles), the value of exports for which are obtained from the UN Yearbooks of International Trade Statistics. This is the most complete definition of manufactured goods. The more common definition of manufactured goods is SITC 5 to 8 less 68 (non-ferrous metals). It is not used here because, for the period from 1950 to 1980, international trade statistics provide this disaggregation at country-level but not for country-groups or regions. In UNCTAD Stat, however, manufactured goods are defined as SITC 5 to 8 less 68 (non-ferrous metals) and 667 (pearls, precious and semi-precious stones). SITC 68 has been added to the statistics on manufactured exports obtained from UNCTAD. The values of exports in SITC 667 are very small, almost negligible, in relation to the values of total manufactured exports. This makes the two data sets almost perfectly comparable. The percentages reported in the tables and used in the figure have been calculated from US dollar values in current prices at current exchange rates. In Figure 6.2, the plot for the share of developing countries in world manufacturing value added, at current prices, is reproduced from Figure 6.1.

Chapter 7

Table 7.1

This table has been compiled from statistics published by the United Nations. For data on population, World Population Prospects, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York. The percentage share of the Next-14 in the total has been computed from the absolute figures in millions. For the other rows in the table, the percentages have been calculated from the sum of dollar values for the Next-14 and the total for developing countries. For data on GDP, and on manufacturing value added, in current prices at current exchange rates, United Nations National Accounts Statistics as reported in UNCTAD Stat. The data on exports and imports, also in current prices and at current exchange rates, are obtained from UNCTAD Stat. For data on manufactured exports, defined as SITC 5 + 6 + 7 + 8, from United Nations, Yearbooks of International Trade Statistics for the period 1970–1995 and UNCTAD Stat for the period 2000–2010. For data on the inward and outward stock of foreign direct investment, UNCTAD FDI online database. For data on remittances, in current prices and at current exchange rates, UNCTAD Stat based on IMF, Balance of Payments Statistics, World Bank, Migration and Remittances, Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Data, and national sources. The data on foreign exchange reserves are obtained from IMF, International Financial Statistics.

(p.191) Table 7.2 and Figure 7.1

This table and figure are based on the author’s calculations from United Nations National Accounts Statistics as reported in UNCTAD Stat.

Figures 7.2 and 7.3

For data on GDP per capita in current prices and at market exchange rates, United Nations National Accounts Statistics as reported in UNCTAD Stat. For data on GDP per capita, in 1990 international Geary-Khamis PPP dollars, Maddison online database. The percentages have been calculated from data on GDP per capita in each of the selected countries as a proportion of the weighted average GDP per capita in industrialized countries.

Chapter 8

Table 8.2 and Figures 8.2 to 8.3

The table and the figures are based on United Nations National Accounts Statistics as reported in UNCTAD Stat. The figures on GDP per capita, in US dollars in current prices at market exchange rates, for ‘The Next-14’ (as also the disaggregation of the fourteen into two groups in Figure 8.3), and the ‘Other Developing Countries’ have been calculated as averages from data on GDP and population. The figures used for 2010, the most recent year, are what was reported at the time the table was compiled but these continue to change for some time as national accounts estimates are revised.

Table 8.4

The headings for columns in this table are c.1980, 1990, 2000 and 2005 because data on Gini coefficients in the specified years are not necessarily available for all countries, so that the figures are for the closest possible year. In the column c.1980, the figure on Malaysia is for 1979, on Brazil, Egypt, and Taiwan for 1981, on India and Turkey for 1983 and on Mexico for 1984. In the column c.1990, the figure on Turkey is for 1987, on Malaysia and Mexico for 1989, and on Egypt for 1991. In the column c.2000, the figure on South Africa is for 1997, on South Korea for 1998, on India and Indonesia for 1999, on Brazil for 2001, and on Turkey for 2002. In the column c.2005, the figure on Thailand is for 2002, on China, Egypt, India, and Malaysia for 2004, on Chile, South Korea and Turkey for 2006, and on South Africa for 2008. In the case of Egypt, the reported Gini c.1980 is for rural areas alone. The Gini coefficients in the table are based on nationally representative household surveys, except for Argentina where the sample is for the 28 largest cities. The Gini coefficients for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey are based on the per capita disposable income, while the Gini coefficients for Egypt, India, Indonesia, and Thailand are based on per capita expenditure.