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Targeted KillingsLaw and Morality in an Asymmetrical World$

Claire Finkelstein, Jens David Ohlin, and Andrew Altman

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199646470

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646470.001.0001

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(p.481) INDEX

(p.481) INDEX

Source:
Targeted Killings
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

References such as “178–9” indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have either been divided into sub-topics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about ‘targeted killing’ the use of this term (and certain others which occur constantly throughout the book) as an entry point has been minimised. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

Abbottabad, Pakistan 118, 183, 185–6, 213, 353, 361, 428–9
accessories 20, 289–91, 296, 298
accomplices 77, 290
accountability 331, 337, 375
accuracy 32, 87, 100, 333, 335–6, 344, 461–2
act-consequentialism 460
Actio Libera in Causa 168, 468–9
action component 19, 262–3, 267–8, 270–1, 273–80, 282, 284
active combat 15, 163–4, 412
active combatants 163–4
activists 101, 103–4, 374
actual harm 52, 66–7
affirmative defenses 161, 184, 191
affirmative responsibilities 211–12
Afghanistan 21, 244–6, 330–3, 341–2, 349–54, 367–9, 419–22
and Pakistan 21, 334, 374, 382, 385–6
agency 152, 290, 295–6, 414, 455, 462
joint 293–5
agents provocateur 467–8, 474
aggression 227–9, 236–7, 239, 255–8, 260–2, 264–80, 282–4
future 252, 256, 264, 269, 273, 277–84
imminent 18, 261–2, 269
joint 293, 296
manifestation of 19, 265, 268, 270–1, 274, 277, 279
unlawful 256, 258, 260–1, 271, 277
victims of 259–60
aggressive actions 76, 286–7, 293, 296
aggressive operational counterterrorism 306, 311
aggressors 19–20, 259–62, 265, 267–8, 270–84, 287, 289–90
psychotic 242, 458
unlawful 199, 258, 260, 266, 274, 284
aircraft 98, 106, 108, 335, 385, 437
drone see drones
manned 380–2, 385, 463
air strikes 22, 332–4 see also drones
al-Awlaki, Anwar 35, 58, 159, 367–8, 371
allies 62, 71, 83, 103, 327, 414–15
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) 35, 246
Altman, A. 1, 288, 403, 405, 425
America see United States
anarchy 203–4, 365, 416, 420, 458, 477–8
Anderson, K. 22–3, 107, 111, 158, 165, 172–3, 232, 245, 249–50, 303
anticipatory self-defense 228, 244, 312
anti-terrorism 146, 152, 351
anti-terrorist action 146–7, 150, 153, 155, 255, 418
anti-terrorist agents 141, 143, 147–8
AQ see Al Qaeda
arbitrariness 270, 273–4, 454
armed attacks 202, 207, 228–9, 232–3, 235–8, 241–4, 246–8
imminent 228, 247
armed-conflict model 1, 5–10, 14, 95, 256
armed conflicts 8–13, 64–6, 74–7, 223–6, 230–3, 249–51, 339–42
existence of 211–13
incidence of 228–9, 236, 251
international 18, 44, 70–1, 225, 230, 232, 249–52
morality of 188, 316
non-international 39–41, 43–5, 49–50, 52–3, 56, 230–4, 241
armed drones 1, 22–3, 160, 370, 392
armed forces 2, 38–9, 49–50, 52, 56, 84, 214
regular 2, 86, 214, 313
armed groups 9, 50–1, 53–8, 74, 81–7, 238, 241
armed operations 111, 127
armed organized groups see organized armed groups
armed violence 22–3, 212, 231
assassinations 34–6, 119, 359, 413–14, 421–2, 432, 434 (p.482)
political 34–5, 135, 288
assassination teams 292–3, 296
assassins 117, 124–5, 151, 404, 432, 434
associated forces 33, 38, 225, 233, 235
asymmetric(al) warfare 12, 62, 181, 185, 210–11
asymmetrical wars 7, 215, 299, 404
asymmetric conflicts 1–3, 8, 10–11, 15, 31, 98, 101
atrocities 144, 201, 406
terrorist 91, 115, 117, 123–4
attackers 92–4, 173–4, 209, 388–9, 445, 457–8, 474–6
would-be 475, 477
attacks
direct 39–40, 44, 56, 93, 195
indiscriminate 92–3, 195
lethal 10–11, 15, 103, 105, 412
military 63, 75, 83–4, 92
planned 243, 311, 322, 427
Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) 38, 72
authorizations 37–8, 45, 72, 118, 163, 180, 360
bad states of affairs 443–5, 447, 455
balancing 40, 52, 73, 129–30, 152, 275, 447–8
consequentialist 455, 461, 463–4
battlefields 7, 22, 42, 67, 79–80, 380–1, 411–13
demarcated 7, 15
belligerency 47–8, 59, 72, 160, 171, 174–6, 178 see also co-belligerency
characteristics of proper war 205–10
and combat morality 198–200
and development of criminal law 190–4
and duty 200–2
historical development of laws of war 194–8
moral blurring of delineation of war 187–205
privileged 16, 183–219
simple legal solution to complex political and moral problem 210–17
unacceptable nature of status quo 203–5
and unique nature of war 188–200
belligerent occupation, laws of 43–4
belligerents 33–5, 40–1, 48–9, 59, 164, 167–8, 194–5
civilian 219
enemy 15–16, 38
privileged 16, 184–5, 194, 215
unprivileged 6, 48
in bello contract 99, 106–7, 109
in bello rules see jus in bello rules
bin Laden, Osama, killing of 22, 150, 155, 165, 347–73, 403, 428–30 see also Operation Neptune Spear
blameworthiness 25, 192, 288, 296–7, 431, 442, 478
blood money 333, 377
bombings 145, 166, 315, 349, 450–1, 462
bomb makers 150, 160, 296, 354, 458
bootstrapping problem 166, 171
Bush Administration 14, 37, 47, 142–4, 156–8, 240, 303
Bush doctrine 240, 243–4
bystanders 177, 182, 242, 426
civilian 22, 475
innocent 14, 22, 26, 141, 147, 150, 152
capital punishment 136, 153
Caroline Incident 236, 312–13, 315
case officers 316–17, 322
casualties 165, 315, 339, 366, 383–4, 391, 426
noncombatant 327, 330–1
causal contributions 68–70, 418
causal criteria 66, 70, 79
causal links 52, 66, 68–70
causal sequences 290, 295–6
causation 66, 70, 436, 447, 449, 453
direct 52, 68
one-step view 68, 70
proximate 66, 470
CENTCOM (Central Command) 21, 332, 337, 339, 341, 350
Central Intelligence Agency see CIA
cessation of hostilities 189, 198, 212
chain of command 2, 214, 323, 330, 332, 340, 355
checklists 20–1, 318, 325
children 137–8, 174, 314, 335, 446, 448, 452
Christopher, R. 18–19, 122, 178, 289, 320, 427, 457
Church Committee 34, 36
Churchill, Winston 128, 407, 437, 451, 465
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 21, 159, 331–4, 343–5, 350–1, 353–4, 369–70
civilian belligerents 219
civilian bystanders 22, 475
civilian casualties 57, 326–8, 330–4, 346, 375, 382–3, 385–7
civilian control 128, 188
civilian deaths 21, 40, 57, 366, 374, 382–3, 426
incidental 406, 414
civilian harm 59, 387–9, 396–7, 399 (p.483)
civilian immunity 9, 417
civilian law enforcement 204, 208
civilian leaders 117, 361
civilian life 47, 144, 206, 210, 215, 323
civilian objects 205–6, 215
civilian personnel 67, 164, 339
civilian populations 2, 40, 50, 93–4, 205, 208, 437–8
civilian presumption, rebuttal 33–59
civilian property 195, 206
civilians 2–4, 6–9, 32–4, 47–50, 52–3, 406–8, 425–7
innocent 32, 40, 88, 154, 195, 307–11, 313–15
killing of 12, 33, 60, 126, 128, 154–5, 368
intentional 2, 4, 9, 13, 127, 154, 417
protection of 40, 54, 56, 59, 319
taking a direct part in hostilities 40–6
targeting of 6, 13, 41, 83, 93, 315, 418
civilian status 82, 421, 423
civilian targets 40, 93, 109, 195
civilian trials 143, 323
civilized society 196–7, 286
civil liberties 61–2, 85–6, 321, 372
preservation of 88–9
civil wars 251, 397, 413–14
claims 136–7, 152–3, 243–4, 261–2, 374–6, 378, 414–17
about drones 342–6
about targeted killing policy 342–6
about targeted killing process 327–42
empirical 21, 307, 326–46, 383
general 224, 247
normative 374, 376
of self-defense 25, 168, 232–3, 247, 266, 411, 470–1
without evidence 326–46
closed choice situations 20, 297–8
co-belligerency 61, 65, 78, 80, 182
under law of neutrality 70–2
co-belligerents 160–1
linking principles 65–78
linking problem 62–5
targeting of 60–89
coercive interrogations 350
collateral damage 178–9, 309–10, 313, 316–17, 351, 382, 387–8
estimation 328–32, 339, 346
minimizing 307, 325, 330, 332
collateral deaths 4, 407, 426
collective decisions 26–7, 188, 202, 210
collective fighting forces 66, 72, 78
collective hostilities 70
collectives 73, 95–6, 99, 103–5
collective self-defense 207, 228, 246
collective violence 11, 54
collectivism 95–6, 98–100, 103–5, 110
combat 16, 143–5, 188–90, 196–200, 202–3, 208–11, 411–13
active 15, 163–4, 412
drones see drones
function 53–4, 59, 84
morality 16, 189, 198–200
zone 160, 203, 206
combatancy 66–7, 70, 73, 155
combatant immunity 40, 46, 78, 188, 213
combatants 39–41, 96–101, 142–6, 175–8, 197–200, 207–8, 412–17
active 163–4
individual 72, 175, 189–90
killing of 126–8, 130–1, 165
lawful 47, 195–6, 198–9, 213, 255
moral equality of 176, 187, 200, 410
non-enemy 159, 164
traditional 46–7, 66, 79–80
unjust 117, 139
unlawful 34, 42, 46–9, 143, 159–60, 164, 421–2
combatant status 14, 142–4, 161, 211
qualification for 213–14
unlawful 48
combined operations 379, 381, 384
command
chain of 2, 214, 323, 330, 332, 340, 355
discretion 20, 306, 314
hierarchy 2, 89
structure 53–4, 56–7, 73–4, 86
Commander of Multinational Forces Iraq 330, 332
commanders 20, 86, 160–1, 313–19, 329–32, 340–1, 353–4
CENTCOM 21, 332
ground 338, 341
military 118, 145, 305–6, 350
commanders-in-chief 253, 359, 413–14
commandos 118, 145, 356, 363, 429–30, 433
common criminals 425, 428
complicity 10–11, 63, 65, 79–80, 89, 350
and conspiracy 76–8
liability 76
conduct rules vs. status rules 85–9
conflicts 49–50, 71–3, 98–9, 101–5, 213–14, 216–17, 450
asymmetric 2, 10, 15, 31, 98, 101, 161
international 44, 76, 165
violent 100, 232
consent 17, 189–90, 198, 203, 233–6, 270, 342–3
self-declared 80
consequentialism 24, 27, 410, 443–9, 453–4, 460, 462–3
skewed 455, 462–3
(p.484)
consequentialist balancing 461, 463–4
consequentialist calculations 460–2
consequentialist justifications 137, 436, 448, 465
conspiracy 10, 57, 65, 79–80, 88–9
and complicity 76–8
continuous combat function 50–1, 79–80, 82–5, 89
standard 82–5
contractualism 95, 97–100, 105–8, 110
contras 75, 244
contrived defenses 25–6, 470
contrived self-defense 25, 470
control 25, 46, 56, 61, 65, 74–5, 357–8
civilian 128, 188
crime 420–1
principles 75–6
test 74–6
effective 75, 238
conventional operations 111, 380, 384–5
conventional war 15, 105, 111, 404, 420, 422–3, 426–7
targeted killing in 410–15
conventional warfare 111, 379–80, 382
conviction 95, 142, 268, 270
cost-benefit analysis 377, 397
counterinsurgency 330, 381–2, 384, 420
operations 330–3, 382, 386
counterterrorism 92–3, 245, 249–50, 310, 327–8, 357–8, 384
decision-making in 318–19
effective 306, 308, 319, 324
global 358, 379
operational 307, 309, 311, 313, 325
operations 307, 314, 318, 348, 367, 384
threat definition 319–21
covert actions/operations 34–5, 225, 351, 353, 355, 360, 379
crime control 420–1
crimes 3–5, 76–7, 167, 189, 406–7, 418–19, 468–9
serious 5–6, 473
terrorist 3, 416, 427, 431
war 69, 169, 189, 313, 362, 383
criminal codes 168, 192–3
criminal endeavors 76–8
criminal enterprises 240, 414
criminal justice 146–7, 210, 219
criminal law 15–16, 61–3, 76–7, 121–2, 190–3, 198–202, 442
defenses 257, 428, 473
intuitions 192–3, 199
substantive 192–3
criminal liability 77, 190, 269–70
criminal offenses 191, 213, 217
criminal organizations 88, 423
criminal process 80, 82, 216
criminal prosecutions 48, 217
and war 208–10
criminal punishment 171, 192, 196–7, 410
criminals 14, 142, 146, 161, 190, 418–19, 424–5
common 425, 428
domestic 224, 255
ordinary 5, 14, 155, 255
suspected 36, 405
war 6, 144–5, 418
criminal suspects 7, 142–3
criminal systems, civilian 197, 286
criminal trials 62, 79, 136
culpability 61, 85, 88, 192, 288, 297, 409–10
individual 412–13
custody, physical 32–3, 358
customary international law (CIL) 197–8, 212, 236–7, 244, 248–9, 314, 366
customary national security policy 366, 369
damage, collateral see collateral damage
deadly threats 11, 405
death penalty 25, 173, 179–80, 405, 431, 476
deaths 183–4, 202–3, 406–10, 445–6, 450–3, 464–5, 475
civilian 21, 40, 57, 366, 374, 382–3, 426
collateral 4, 407, 426
unintended 342, 404
death squads 113, 117, 122, 130
decision makers 306–7, 310–11, 318, 321, 324–5, 345, 347
decision-making 21, 129, 225, 305, 307–8, 316–18, 321–2
criteria-based see criteria-based reasoning
process 202, 305, 308, 314–15, 318, 322, 324–5
decision protocol 326
decision tree 24–5
declarations of war see formal declarations of war
deep morality of war 96, 102, 105, 110, 123
defenses 120–2, 135–6, 146, 168, 263, 329–32, 468–70
contrived 25–6, 470
criminal law 257, 428, 473
duress 168, 192, 473–4
national 93, 146
necessity 469, 474
societal 136, 146, 297
valid 184, 196, 469
defensive actions 135, 139–40, 146–7, 150, 287, 291, 428
defensive attack 96–7, 101, 106
defensive harm 139, 290
defensive homicides 20, 288–90, 292–4, 296–8
defensive killing 26, 139–40, 155, 290
defensive responses 63, 209, 257, 268, 321
defensive targeted killings, defense of 285–99
defensive war 227–30, 248, 292, 408, 428
deliberate killing 12, 126, 223, 403, 410, 423, 427
of civilians 2, 4, 9, 13, 127, 154, 417
(p.485)
demarcated battlefields 7, 15
democracies, liberal 12, 219, 404, 406, 415, 417, 432–3
deontological ethics 444–6
deontological norms 180, 455–6, 463
of obligation 449–50, 453–4
deontological obligations 448–50, 453–5, 464
deontological permissions 448–9, 454, 458
deontologists 444–5, 454, 466, 477
deontology 445–50, 454–5
threshold 454–6, 462, 466
designated targets 85, 202, 206, 311
despots 152, 418
detention 7, 14, 47, 73, 156, 158, 323–4
indefinite 15, 156–7
diplomats 343, 444–5, 450
direct actions 367, 372–3
direct attacks 39–40, 44, 56, 93, 195
direct causation 52, 68
direct military advantage 47, 57, 215
direct participation 43, 49–54, 56, 58, 61, 65–70, 81–3
in an armed conflict 65–70
in hostilities 38–9, 41–2, 44–5, 56, 66–70, 73, 81–5
ICRC interpretive guidance 49–54
discretion 20, 305, 338
command 20, 306, 314
unfettered 306, 311, 317, 325
discrimination principle 99, 106
explanations 94–100
disincentives against use of force 22, 375, 388–92
divine governance 418–19
domestic criminal law 13–14, 88, 153–4, 175–6, 180–1, 185–6, 457–8
Doswald-Beck, L. 197, 230, 369
Dressler, J. 264–6
drones 164–6, 172–4, 333–8, 341–5, 374–82, 384–9, 391–4
armed 1, 22–3, 160, 370, 392
claims about 342–6
commanders 339–40
making war too easy 387–9
missile strikes 22, 223–5, 362, 367
operators 335, 376
programs 21, 304, 343, 369
technologies 22, 165, 172, 178, 384, 386–8, 390
disentangling from targeted killing 379–82
drug cartels 421–2
duress 25, 161, 168, 191–2, 196, 451, 468
defense 168, 192, 473–4
duty 16, 108–9, 144, 182, 194, 239–40, 448–9
as essence of soldiering 200–2
Dworkin, G 113–15, 123
effective control test 75, 238
effective counterterrorism 306, 308, 319, 324
effective right of self-defense see right to effective self-defense
effective self-defense 18, 259–62, 276, 281, 284
efficiency 22–3, 165, 173
in bello and ad bellum 22, 374–99
civilian casualties and collateral damage 382–7
coherency of general argument 394–5
disentangling drone warfare and targeted killing 379–82
and drones making war too easy 387–9
easier v too easy 395–7
and personal risk 375–6, 387–94
social welfare and justice 397–9
Egypt 349, 451
emblems, fixed 72–3, 78, 86
empirical claims without empirical evidence 21, 346
enemies 6–11, 22, 38, 69–72, 129–31, 213–15, 411–13
of society 129–30
unjust 412, 414, 418, 423
enemy belligerents 15–16, 38
enemy combatants 11, 144–5, 177, 195, 347, 410–14, 420–1
unjust 411–12, 414
unlawful 416, 422
enemy personnel 38, 66–7
enemy soldiers 16, 65, 73, 103, 175, 188, 411–12
enhanced interrogation techniques 156, 159–60
enlistment 200–1
equality
formal 71
moral 175–6, 187, 189, 200
escalation 102, 242, 366
estoppel arguments 471
ethics 63, 93, 95, 97, 103, 136–7, 437–8 see also morality
deontological 444–6
three-level analysis 447–57
applied to targeted killings 457–66
virtue 376, 390
of war 378, 388, 390
evidentiary devices 263–4, 267, 271, 276
evidentiary requirements 262–4, 268–70, 284
evidentiary rules 268–70
evildoers, principled 418–19
excused injustice 397
executions 80, 82, 143, 163, 171, 217, 404–5
explosive devices, improvised 51, 345 (p.486)
extended self-defense 464, 476
extradition 184, 417
extrajudicial intentional killing 254, 404–5
Exum, A. 254, 327, 334, 377
fairness 108–9, 153, 438, 457
Ferzan, K. 264–70
financial support 64, 69
financiers 160, 321, 323–4, 354
fixed emblems 72–3, 78, 86
Fletcher, G.P. 63, 81, 191–2, 208–10, 244, 255, 264, 267–71, 282, 458
‘for such time’ requirement 42, 57, 81–2, 89
Ford, President 34–5
foreign leaders 34–5, 119, 167
formal declarations of war 142, 183–219, 422
nullification 216–17
formal equality 71
form vs function 74
function 13, 51–2, 55–6, 61–2, 259–60, 379–80, 383–4
combat see combat function
vs form 74
military 9, 55–9, 143
non-combat 82, 84
functional membership 10–11, 14, 88–9
as hybrid concept 86–7
future aggression 252, 256, 264, 269, 273, 277–84
general morality 192–4, 196–7, 200
genocide 67, 341, 405–6, 408, 424, 430
Germany 199–200, 336, 359, 407
Geronimo 353, 356
global counterterrorism 358, 379
global war 24, 56
good consequences 24, 432, 448–51, 453, 455–6, 461–5
good faith 113, 130
good states of affairs 443–4, 447
Govern, K.H 22, 161, 164–7, 459
governance 46, 255
divine 418–19
Greenwood, C. 228, 243–4
ground commanders 338, 341
ground forces 304–5
groups 17, 49–58, 82–5, 103, 245–7, 250, 292–4
armed 9, 50–1, 53–8, 74, 81–7, 238, 241
of individuals 99, 101, 170, 193
non-state 2, 4, 80, 92
organized 50–1, 54, 59, 63
terrorist 9, 17, 19, 23, 80, 110, 239–40
grudges 317, 322–3
guerilla organizations 93–4, 102, 106–9, 111
guilt 116, 147, 184, 189, 199, 415, 459
moral 408
non-moral 436
Guiora, A.N. 20, 359
handicapped persons 472–3
Haqqani network 246
hard choices, morality of 434–66
harm 51–2, 67–8, 136–8, 297–8, 389–91, 450–3, 457–8
actual 52, 66–7
civilian 59, 387–9, 396–7, 399
threatened 191–2, 199, 209, 257, 424, 428, 451
wrongful 4, 24, 137, 154
helicopters 185, 285, 304, 335, 356, 380, 382
Henckaerts, J.-M. 197, 230
Henkin, L. 188
hierarchy 11, 74
command 2, 89
organizational 74, 86
high seas 236, 437
High Value Targets (HVTs) 353, 369, 372
Hitler, Adolf 105, 405, 407, 414, 427, 434, 436–7, 463, 465
homeland security 327, 372–3, 420
homicides 13, 27, 113, 190, 197, 286, 298
defensive 20, 288–90, 292–4, 296–8
unjustified 192–3
horrors of war 97, 106
hospitals 437, 472
hostages 22, 124, 143, 149, 196, 253, 394
hostile acts 31–2, 41–2, 46, 51, 55, 68, 213–14
hostile intent, demonstration of 31–2
hostilities 9, 39–44, 48–57, 66–70, 73, 80–5, 211–13
armed 341, 361
cessation of 189, 198, 212
collective 70
humane treatment 144, 214–15
humanitarian interventions 23, 385, 392, 399, 406, 408
humanity 45, 52, 73, 83, 174, 194, 197–8
human life 3, 6–7, 11, 13, 27, 36, 264
human rights 43, 45, 66–7, 75, 87, 151, 188
law 45–6, 196, 214, 365
international 224, 226, 234, 362–3, 374
HVTs (High Value Targets) 353, 369, 372
identification 14, 65, 87, 100, 174, 206, 247
statistical 170
identified individuals 162, 170, 223
identity 105, 139, 164, 178, 321, 355, 462
Ignatius, D. 377–8
illegal orders 319
immediacy 67, 121, 321
immediate necessity 320–1
immediate threats 7, 67, 83, 146–7, 178–9, 192, 227
unjust 287–8
imminence 18–19, 37, 171, 289, 304–5, 319–21, 427–8
arbitrariness of action component 270–1
as evidentiary requirement 269–70
in justified targeted killing 253–84
and post-imminence 276–8
requirement 8, 18–19, 25, 122, 256–7, 259–84, 320
defenses of 263–71
evidentiary view of 268–9
having independent substantive significance v. imminence as evidentiary requirement or proxy 262–3
purely temporal 271–2
with temporal and action components 273–83
and underlying principle 264–6
as requirement of political theory 267–8
as right to respond to aggression 266–7
temporal 271, 274–6
understanding 319–21
imminent aggression 18, 261–2, 269
imminent armed attacks 228, 247
imminent dangers 111, 160, 337
imminent threats 6–7, 174, 256, 262–3, 265–6, 271–86, 320–1
immunity 9, 42, 100, 143–4, 194, 202, 212–13
civilian 9, 417
combatant 40, 46, 78, 188, 213
moral 99–100, 107
noncombatant 154–5
impending attack 272, 437
impending war 406–7, 409, 424
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 51–2, 54, 345
impunity 169, 194, 198, 201, 203–4, 212, 216
incidence of armed conflict 228–9, 236, 251
incidental deaths of civilians 406, 414
indefinite detention 15, 156–7
independence 217, 231, 479
political 8, 17, 63, 224, 228, 236, 361
India 69, 118–19, 242, 368
indirect participation 52, 67, 360
indiscriminate attacks 21, 92–4, 195, 327
individual actions 70, 86, 293–7, 461
individual combatants 72, 175, 189–90
individual culpability 412–13
individualism 95–101, 104–5, 110
individuals 10–12, 77–81, 95–7, 99–101, 163–5, 215–18, 297–8
categorize 34, 59
groups of 99, 101, 170, 193
identified 162, 170, 223
killing 160, 225, 290, 347
targeting of 8, 15, 22, 49, 79, 159, 161
individual self-defense 11, 63, 66, 95, 153, 320, 428
individual soldiers 73–4, 80, 198
individual targeted killings 291, 366
individual terrorists 65, 72, 74, 76–7, 82, 252
industrial-scale counterterrorism killing machine 161, 354
information 2, 21, 309–11, 315–18, 322–8, 335, 338–9
reliable 91, 285, 332
injustice 189, 217, 389, 446
excused 397
innocent bystanders 14, 22, 26, 141, 147, 150, 152
innocent civilians 32, 40, 88, 154, 195, 307–11, 313–15
innocent noncombatants 406, 462–3
innocent people 136–41, 146–7, 296–8, 408–9, 423–6, 475, 477
insurgency 85, 113, 119–20, 129, 223, 225, 372–3
insurgents 84–5, 120, 213, 234, 238, 247, 420
integrity, territorial 63, 95, 224, 228, 236, 361
intelligence 56–8, 310, 319–20, 322–3, 379, 386–7, 465
community 304, 315–16, 320, 322, 359–60, 367, 442
on-the-ground 334–5, 338, 343, 386
operations 353, 386
signals 354, 386
intended victims 20, 136, 139, 147, 257, 298, 457
intentional killing 4–6, 17, 37, 137, 155, 161, 165
of civilians 2, 4, 9, 13, 127, 154, 417
extrajudicial 254, 404–5
intentions 3, 19, 45, 56, 139, 183, 266–7
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 66–7
international armed conflicts 18, 39, 70–1, 225, 230, 232, 249–52
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 44–5, 49, 52–3, 66–8, 80, 82–4, 197
international community 33, 41, 48, 102, 193, 204, 214–15
international conflicts 44, 76, 165
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 17, 74–5, 186, 197, 216–19, 237–9, 244 (p.488)
International Criminal Court (ICC) 67, 76, 149, 167, 204, 216, 254
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 75, 84, 212, 238
international humanitarian law (IHL) 60–1, 72–3, 77–83, 184–6, 223–6, 229–32, 362–3
principles 195, 205, 230, 249
regimes 224, 226, 230–1, 241, 248–9, 251
international human rights law (IHRL) 224, 226, 234, 362–3, 374
international law 16–18, 33–6, 47–9, 157, 223–9, 236–41, 312–15
public 60, 62, 65, 71, 73–4, 76
subjects of 33, 229, 240, 312
international peace 193, 207, 216
international relations 224, 227, 268
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 331–2, 338, 341, 367
international terrorism 33, 38, 360
internment 207, 217–18, 442
interrogations 142, 156–8
coercive 350
interrogation techniques, enhanced 156, 159–60
intruders 172–3, 309
intuition-based approach 306, 309, 311
intuitionism 20, 305, 309–10, 312, 317
invasions 213, 216–17, 240, 244, 299
investigations 43, 73, 78, 121–2, 340, 372, 452
involvement, substantial 237–40, 246
Iraq 53, 103, 198, 223, 330–3, 351, 369–70
invasion of 216–17, 244
Irish Republican Army (IRA) 43, 451
irregular forces 2, 11, 74, 86, 237–8
ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) 331–2, 338, 341, 367
Islam 364, 418–19
Islamabad 350, 368, 428–9
Israel 36, 42–4, 90–2, 100, 104–5, 304–5, 359
Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) 20, 122, 305, 307, 314, 325, 464
Supreme Court 42–3, 45, 48, 81, 122, 307–8, 359
Targeted Killing Case 42–4, 47–8, 170, 474
jihad 87, 349
joint actions 20, 78, 293–7, 299
joint agency 293–5
joint aggression 293, 296
Joint Prioritized Effects List (JPEL) 160, 163, 171, 354, 365
Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) 353–4, 358, 369
journalists 333–5, 350, 390
jurisdiction 8, 17, 88, 179, 189, 199, 212–13
jus ad bellum 60–2, 65, 116–17, 168–9, 175, 389, 395
decisions of 202, 394
rules 17–18
and self-defense 223–52
jus in bello 60–3, 94–7, 116, 175–6, 195–9, 387–9, 393–6
neutrality of 116–17
proportionality 388, 396
jus in bello rules 98, 175, 417
just cause 407
justice 115–16, 175, 193, 208–10, 269–70, 396–9, 438–9 see also injustice
criminal 146–7, 210, 219
justified self-defense 255–6, 262, 268, 270, 273, 275, 277
justified targeted killing 155, 161, 178, 253–84, 320, 427, 457–8
just war theory (JWT) 11, 90–111, 158–9, 161–2, 165, 174–8, 421–4
collectivism 95–6, 98–100, 103–5, 110
contractualism 95, 97–100, 105–8, 110
discrimination principle, explanations 94–100
individualism 95, 98–101, 104, 110
targeted killing
in the light of the three models 100–9
terrorism and guerilla warfare 91–4
Kant, I. 108, 124–5, 192, 439, 446, 453, 455
Katz, L. 25–7, 168
Kellogg-Briand Pact 206, 227
kidnappings 444–5
Kilcullen, D. 254, 327, 334, 345, 377
kill lists 164, 171, 178
known terrorists 1, 5–7, 21, 25, 417, 422, 424
Koh, H. 38, 157, 225–6, 233, 235, 244, 249, 304, 363
Kretzmer, D. 91, 223, 303
law enforcement 135–7, 141–3, 145–7, 155, 181, 248, 253–6
agents 92, 146–7
civilian 204, 208
paradigm 33, 36–8, 44–6, 48, 58, 78, 142
lawful combatants 47, 195–6, 198–9, 213, 255
lawfulness 66, 159, 305, 310, 320, 403
lawful orders 196, 200, 440
lawful targets 185, 199, 209, 215, 217, 219
lawlessness 3, 372–3
law of war 32–4, 38–9, 45–8, 55, 58–60, 176, 339–41
against terrorists, legal and moral foundations 357–63
(p.489)
development 39–40
paradigm 33, 37–8, 45, 48, 78
laws of war 15–16, 116–17, 126–8, 194–5, 197–8, 285–6, 411–13
acts in compliance with 215–17
historical development 194–8
traditional 162, 179–80
leaders 101–2, 105, 118–19, 334–5, 345, 407–8, 414
civilian 117, 361
foreign 34–5, 119, 167
political 22, 34, 105, 107–8, 145, 154, 413–14
Taliban 335, 345
legal advisors 20, 38, 49, 82, 305, 307, 316–18
legal authority 52, 219, 230–1, 234
legality 1, 11, 196–7, 231–2, 305, 324, 346–7
legal norms 12–14, 36, 113, 119, 123, 130, 142
legal permissions 9, 17, 141–2, 150–1, 153, 155, 431
legitimacy 159, 166, 169, 177–8, 182, 370, 479
of naming targets 166–72
of targeted killing 94, 100–1, 104, 109, 182, 372, 405
legitimate military objectives 165, 347–73, 459
legitimate self-defense 16, 99, 108
legitimate targets 33, 103, 105, 107, 307–8, 313, 323
lethal action 8, 20, 404
lethal attacks 10–11, 15, 103, 105, 412
lethality 31–2, 48, 58
lex specialis 45, 205–6
liability 15, 97–8, 113, 137–41, 143, 238–9, 469
complicity 76
criminal 77, 190, 269–70
justification 138, 141
mode of 76–7
moral 101, 110
strict 250, 468
liberal democracies 12, 219, 404, 406, 415, 417, 432–3
liberal governments 403–5, 408–10, 412, 427, 430–2
liberal principles 24, 417, 423, 429
liberal states 5–6, 24, 405, 415–17, 419, 421–8, 433
liberties, civil 61–2, 85–6, 88, 321, 372
Libya 66, 111, 167–8, 368, 385–6, 392, 413
National Transition Council (NTC) 166, 368
Lieber Code 71, 194, 196–7, 205, 411, 422
life saving 405–7
linking principles 10, 61, 63, 65–81, 85, 89
McNeal, G.S. 21, 124, 254, 307, 383, 386
mafia 7, 102, 104, 422–3
manifest aggression 274, 277
manned aircraft 380–2, 385, 463
Martin, C. 17–18, 255
material support 69, 77–8, 225
Maxwell. M. 8–9, 11–13, 15–16, 18, 193, 212, 256
Mayer, J. 303, 334–6, 338, 376, 437, 451
media reports 333–4
Melzer, N. 5, 33, 39, 43, 49, 52–4, 70, 73–4, 81–4, 86, 224, 231–2, 241–2, 248, 351, 415, 467
membership 10–11, 50, 52–8, 61–2, 72–4, 78–89, 100
criteria 74, 422–3
functional see functional membership
military 65, 72
principles 10, 79, 82
rethinking of 79–82
self-declared 81, 87
methodology 61, 305, 309, 317, 329, 372, 384
Meyer, R.V. 16–17, 160–1, 286
militants 72, 110, 158, 223, 247, 327, 366–8
suspected 337–8
military advantage 107, 195–6, 206, 215, 314, 331
direct 47, 57, 215
military attacks 63, 75, 83–4, 92
military commanders 118, 145, 305–6, 350
military commissions 46–8, 85, 427
military functions 9, 55–9, 143
military headquarters 145, 412
military law 196, 201
military membership 65, 72–4
military necessity 47, 83, 167, 194–6, 348, 393, 396
military operations 43, 86, 344, 350–1, 380, 388, 391
conventional 111, 380
coordinated 52, 68
military organizations 50, 72–4, 78, 80, 82–3, 89, 144–5
state 74, 86
military personnel 143, 160, 178, 204, 212, 217, 341–2
military targets 86, 92–4, 100, 109, 152, 154, 230
militias 16, 63, 186, 211, 214
misidentification 147, 149
missiles 93, 103, 172–3, 335–6, 368, 376, 380–1
drone-fired 22, 223–5, 362, 367
mitigation 21, 173, 328–31
processes 328–9, 333, 346
techniques 329–30, 339
modern warfare 101, 174, 363, 370
realities of 162–6
money 8, 23, 26, 69, 194, 395–6, 473–4
blood 333, 377
Montague, P. 19–20, 136, 253, 257, 457 (p.490)
Moore, M. 22, 25, 27, 309, 312, 469, 476
moral beliefs 197, 202, 438
moral codes 27, 188, 197–8, 202, 286
moral culpability 288, 408–9, 419
moral dilemmas 158, 416, 421, 423, 436–40, 442, 447
moral equality
of combatants 176, 187, 200, 410
of soldiers 175, 189
moral guilt 408
moral immunity 99–100, 107
morality 16–17, 95–7, 108, 137–41, 160–1, 186–7, 189, 438–42 see also ethics
of combat see combat morality
deep 96, 101–2, 105, 110, 123, 125
desirability of finding objective answers 441–2
general 192–4, 196–7, 200
of hard choices 434–66
natural 108–9
ordinary 15–17, 160, 176, 186, 286, 291, 298–9
personal 175–6
positive 126–7
possibility of finding objective answers 438–41
and self-defense 311–15
of targeted killing 1, 24, 291, 403, 421, 432, 442
of war 17, 95, 177, 186, 286, 291, 410–11
deep 96, 102, 105, 110, 123
special 17, 20, 286, 298–9
moral justifications 92, 125, 137, 151, 165, 176, 361
moral liability 101, 110
moral norms 27, 129, 190, 202, 286, 444
moral obligations 106, 187, 202, 364, 405, 447
moral opportunism 113, 129–30
moral permissibility 11, 22, 24, 135, 288, 292–3, 297
moral permissions 6, 11, 99, 141, 416, 466
moral principles 11, 16–17, 19, 24, 27, 189–90, 305–6
ordinary 19, 285–6, 299
moral questions 136, 397–8, 434–5, 441–2, 457–8
moral relativism 398
moral responsibility 96–101, 105, 116, 137, 185–7, 190, 297
moral rules 190, 404, 467, 472
moral standards 117, 128
moral status 24, 95, 101, 165, 175, 285–6, 371
moral theory 1, 115, 267, 309, 435, 441, 450
moral truths 435–6, 438, 457
multiple agents 286, 294, 298
naming 163, 166, 169–70, 431
National Command Authority 331–2, 355
national liberation movements 106–7
national security 35, 61, 92, 171–2, 178, 318, 391–2
national security interests 178, 392, 396
national self-defense 172, 284, 287, 291–2
nation-states 71, 74, 107, 308, 312, 318, 325
natural law 197, 227, 229
natural morality 108–9
natural rights 108–9, 193
Navy Seals 1, 22, 148, 185, 345, 355–6, 363
NCV (noncombatant casualty value) 330, 332
necessity 25, 191–2, 247–8, 263–4, 266, 468–9, 474
immediate 320–1
justifications 137–8
military 47, 83, 167, 194–6, 348, 393, 396
neighbors 191, 204, 406–7, 464
Neptune Spear see Operation Neptune Spear
neutrality 70–2, 80, 116, 219, 435
law of 78, 80
and co-belligerency 70–2
neutral principles 112–31
Dworkin, G 113–15, 123
murder and moral opportunism 129–30
neutrality of jus in bello 116–17
and non-neutral principles 113–15, 123–8
prevention of abuses 120–3
Wechsler, H 113–15
in whose hands 117–20, 130–1
neutral states 206–7, 215, 217
Nevada 336–7, 387
New America Foundation 334–5, 366, 383–4
new wars 40, 110–11
Nicaragua 74–5, 229, 237–8, 244
noncombatant casualties 327, 330–1
noncombatant casualty value (NCV) 330, 332
noncombatants 32, 44, 73, 96–100, 144, 208, 462–3
immunity 154–5
innocent 406, 462–3
killing of 106, 109, 450, 464
non-combat functions 82, 84
non-enemy combatants 159, 164
non-international armed conflicts 40–6, 49–50, 52–3, 56, 64, 230–4, 241
non-lethal alternatives, lack of 405, 409–10, 415
non-moral guilt 436
non-neutral principles 113–15, 123–8
non-state actor group 214, 216
non-state actors (NSAs) 60–5, 214–16, 224, 229, 234–42, 250–3, 312–13
actions of 239–41
non-state entities 17, 238, 240–1
non-state groups 2, 4, 80, 86, 92
non-state organizations 1, 16–17, 79, 83, 186, 215
non-State parties 49–50, 56, 82–3, 107
non-state terrorist organizations 50, 62 (p.491)
normative claims 374, 376
normativity 127–8
norms 9–10, 12–13, 112–13, 115–16, 118, 123–31, 444–6
deontological 180, 449–50, 453–6, 463
international humanitarian law 64, 87–8, 363
legal 12–14, 36, 113, 119, 123, 130, 142
moral 27, 129, 190, 202, 286, 444, 446
novel warfare, new approach to combat 54–5
Nozick, R. 458, 477
nuclear weapons 39, 151, 197, 232, 252, 454, 466
nullification of declarations of war 216–17
Obama Administration 22, 143, 148–9, 156–9, 306, 352–3, 364
obedience 97, 184, 201–2
objective criteria 85, 240–1
objective manifestations 269–70
objective probability 139, 141
objects, civilian 205–6, 215
obligations 24, 181–2, 313, 362–3, 446–7, 449–50, 453–5
deontological 448–50, 453–5, 464
legal 9, 197, 311
moral 106, 187, 202, 364, 405, 447
occupied territories 1, 44, 53
O'Connell, M.E. 21, 60, 62, 64, 158, 165, 224, 234, 254, 303, 333–45
OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom) 350
Ohlin, J.D. 9–11, 18, 193, 212, 242, 244, 254–5, 264, 267–71, 281–2, 415
one-step view of causation 68, 70
on-the-ground intelligence 334–5, 338, 343, 386
open fire orders 307, 316
operational counterterrorism 307, 309, 311, 313, 325
aggressive 306, 311
operational law 341–2
operational planners 357–8
operational roles 51, 385
operational support 69, 323
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) 350
Operation Neptune Spear 22, 150, 155, 161, 165, 347–73, 403
legal and moral foundations of law of war against terrorists 357–63
polarizing paradigm of 366–73
politics and military necessity behind 348–56
resolution of moral doubts about targeted killing 363–6
operations 229–30, 236–40, 249–52, 322–5, 329–33, 347–8, 355–61
armed 111, 127
combined 379, 381, 384
conventional 384–5
counterinsurgency 330–3, 382, 386
counterterrorism 307, 314, 318, 348, 367, 384
covert 34–5, 225, 355, 360
drone see drones
military 43, 86, 344, 350–1, 380, 388, 391
pre-planned 328–31
special 353, 355, 358, 367, 370, 379, 384–5
targeted killing 157, 163, 310, 331–2, 346–7, 357–9, 369
terrorist 237, 239
operators 22, 311, 335–7, 341, 355, 376, 380
opportunism, moral 113, 129–30
orders 11–13, 24–6, 107–9, 139, 184, 200–2, 359–60
illegal/unlawful 319
lawful 196, 200, 440
open fire 307, 316
standing 316, 319
superior 200–1
taking 85–6
ordinary criminals 5, 14, 155, 255
ordinary morality 15–17, 160, 176, 186, 286, 291, 298–9
ordinary moral principles 19, 285–6, 299
organizational hierarchy 74, 86
organizations 10–11, 38, 63–5, 81–2, 93–4, 100–2, 108–9
criminal 88, 423
guerilla 93–4, 106–8, 111
military 50, 72–4, 78, 80, 82–3, 89, 144–5
non-state 1, 16–17, 79, 186, 215
organized armed groups 33, 39, 41, 49–59, 63, 83–5, 87
definition 56
redefinition of members 55–8
other-defense 15, 19–20, 95, 136, 147, 178, 287–8
preemptive 289, 296
over-inclusiveness 264–5, 274–5
pacifism 96, 101, 103, 111
Pakistan 233–4, 245–7, 332–5, 343–5, 350–5, 361, 368–70
Abbottabad 118, 183, 185–6, 213, 353, 361, 428–9
and Afghanistan 21, 334, 374, 382, 385–6
border areas 384, 386
government 22, 148, 234, 343–4, 350, 352, 386
military 234, 343–4, 356, 375
Pakistani Taliban 245, 327, 368
Panetta, Leon 171, 352–3, 355, 383
Parks, W.H. 36, 38, 43–5, 415
participation 48, 63, 67, 77, 97, 101, 210 (p.492)
direct 43, 49–54, 56, 58, 61, 65–70, 81–3
indirect 52, 67, 360
payoffs 182, 395–6, 398
peace 13, 125, 227, 341–2, 415–17, 421, 433
international 193, 207, 216
peacetime 36, 38, 154, 189, 411–13, 423–8, 432–3
setting 24, 419–22, 425–6, 429, 431
targeted killing in 405–10
permanent members 204, 216–17, 219
permissibility 8, 13, 60, 68, 152, 290–1, 410–11
conditions 430–2
moral 11, 22, 24, 288, 292–3, 297, 435
of targeted killing 15, 19, 150, 152, 284, 286, 294
permissible defensive homicides 288, 290, 292–4, 298
permissible targeted killing 357–8
permissions 24, 95, 105, 153–4, 182–3, 449, 463–5
deontological 448–9, 454, 458
legal 9, 17, 141–2, 150–1, 153, 155, 431
moral 6, 11, 99, 141, 416, 466
personal morality 175–6
personal property 3, 191, 469
personal risk 375–6, 387–94
personal self-defense 6, 15
personnel 5, 23, 52, 93, 376, 380, 391–2
civilian 67, 164, 339
enemy 38, 66–7
military 160, 178, 204, 212, 217, 341–2, 358
Phoenix program 119, 223
physical custody 32–3, 358
pilots 160, 214, 336–8, 341, 380, 387, 437
planned attacks 243, 311, 322, 427
planners 172, 291, 321, 323–4
operational 357–8
poisoners 124–5
police 5, 15, 37, 84, 120–1, 147–8, 196
actions 142, 146, 255, 343
political assassinations 34–5, 135, 288
political communities 291–2, 299
political independence 8, 17, 63, 224, 228, 236, 361
political leaders 22, 34, 105, 107–8, 145, 394, 413–14
political opponents 14, 150, 153
political philosophies 113, 435, 459
political violence 288, 364, 417
politicians 96, 105, 109, 113, 129–30, 149, 210
positive morality 126–7
possessions 171, 191, 296
post-imminence 276–9, 284
potential victims 93, 101, 108, 137, 139, 242, 298
powers 118, 121, 186, 190, 199, 211–14, 216–19
of the sovereign 203
veto 204, 207, 216
Predator drones 117, 143, 254, 256, 335–6, 350–1, 385–6
preemption 162, 182, 289, 350
preemptive action 156–82, 243, 254, 289, 411, 475
belligerency, law-enforcement, and self-defense 174–8
legitimacy of naming targets 166–72
preemptive killing in war 178–82
realities of modern warfare 162–6
use of drones to kill 172–4
preemptive killing 15, 162, 178, 181–2
preemptive other-defense 289, 296
preemptive self-defense 244, 304–5, 315
premeditation 32–3, 431
preventative self-defense 229, 243–4
preventative strikes 243, 314
prevention 137, 147, 162, 179–80, 182, 416
preventive killing 136, 162, 181
principled evildoers 418–19
prisoners 142–3, 158–9, 189, 200, 208, 365, 467–8
of war 47, 64, 73, 142–3, 158–9, 184, 365
privileged belligerency 16, 184–6, 198–200, 204, 208, 211–14, 217
privileged belligerents 16, 184–5, 194, 215
probability, objective 139, 141
proof 42, 52, 88, 147, 191, 196, 209
property 172–3, 190–1, 206, 212, 297, 329, 384
civilian 195, 206
personal 3, 191, 469
proportionality 41–5, 47, 152–3, 195–6, 247–8, 312–14, 329–31
calculus 388
jus in bello 388, 396
protected status 34, 53, 65–6, 69, 81, 89, 188
protection of civilians 40, 54, 56, 59, 319
proximate causation 66, 470
psychotic aggressors 242, 458
public declarations 88, 218
public international law 60, 62, 65, 71, 73–4, 76
publicity 72, 80–1, 150, 328
public purposes 254, 404–5, 407
punishment 61, 135–6, 146, 152–3, 179–80, 198–200, 459
capital 136, 153
criminal 171, 196–7, 410
retributive 180, 458, 463–4
Qaddafi, Muammar 151, 166–8, 368, 385, 392, 413–14
rape 106, 194, 270, 445 (p.493)
reasonable belief 149, 209
rebels 236, 365, 368, 413–14
reciprocal risk of killing 60, 65, 80, 305
reciprocity 98, 143–4, 181–2
regular armed forces 2, 86, 214, 313
regular wars 101–2, 106, 421
relativism, moral 398
reliability 310–11, 317, 322, 325–6, 328, 334, 346
reliable information 91, 285, 332
reliance 62, 157, 202, 224, 247, 335, 386
remotely piloted aircraft see drones
remoteness 376, 380
representation 103–4, 202
representatives 103, 131, 241
resistance 34, 147, 150, 270, 425, 429, 471
responsibilities 96–7, 101–2, 140, 189–90, 192–3, 211–13, 339–40
affirmative 211–12
individual 104, 111
legal 201, 210, 218, 229, 236
state 36, 75, 212, 219, 238–9, 252
retribution 135–6, 146, 180, 414
retributive punishment 180, 458, 463–4
revolving door problem 82, 88–9
right actions 443–4, 449
right of self-defense, v. right to effective self-defense 261–2
right to effective self-defense 18, 259–62, 276, 284
risks 14–15, 55, 136, 147–50, 170–1, 387–94, 463
grave 18, 54, 155, 325
high 139, 307, 316, 318
personal 375–6, 387–94
significant 147, 149, 186
statistical 170–1
Rodin, D. 93, 139, 255, 263–4, 431
Rollins, J. 245, 349, 351–2, 373
rule-consequentialism 460
rules of engagement (ROE) 31, 97–8, 119, 307, 316, 330–2, 365–6
safeguards 121, 136, 147, 149–50, 202, 219, 473
safe havens 8–9, 381, 384
Sandroni, A. 471–2
Schmitt, E. 42, 70–1, 83–5, 234–5, 240, 243
SEALs 1, 22, 148, 185, 345, 355–6, 363
Second World War 143, 145, 193, 214, 228, 253, 336
secrecy 21–2, 121, 125, 355, 433
Secretary of Defense 21, 118, 329–32, 355
security 124, 126, 130, 151, 163, 207, 372–3
homeland 327, 372–3, 420
national 35, 61, 92, 171–2, 178, 318, 391–2
Security Council 17, 204, 207, 213, 216–17, 219, 239
self-application 115, 117
self-declared consent 80
self-declared membership 81, 87
self-defenders 168, 176, 259–62, 266, 268–83
self-defense 17–19, 120–2, 174–9, 206–7, 255–69, 275–6, 289–92, 309–15!
against terrorists 312–13
anticipatory 228, 244, 312
claims 168, 232–3, 247, 266, 471
collective 207, 228, 246
contrived 25, 470
doctrine 62, 224–5, 233, 235, 240, 243–4, 248
effective 18, 259–62, 276, 281, 284
extended 464, 476
individual 11, 63, 66, 95, 153, 428, 431
and jus ad bellum 223–52
justification 210, 229, 232–48, 272
justified 255–6, 262, 268, 270, 273, 275, 277
legitimate 16, 99, 108
and morality 311–15
national 172, 284, 287, 291–2
personal 6, 15
preemptive 244, 304–5, 315
preventative 229, 243–4
strategic use of 467–80
self-protection 25, 180, 227, 268, 459
Shehada, Salah 464
signals 73, 261, 267–9, 271, 338
evidentiary 263–4
intelligence 354, 386
skewed consequentialism 455, 462–3
snipers 124–5, 406
social welfare 390, 395–9
societal defense 136, 146, 297
societies 11–12, 16, 146, 315, 372–3, 422–3, 438
civilized 196–7, 286
enemies of 129–30
soldiers 32, 54–5, 96–8, 187–9, 198–202, 316–19, 393–4
enemy 16, 65, 73, 103, 175, 188, 411–12
individual 73–4, 80, 198
moral equality of 175, 189
Solis, G. 160, 164, 194–6, 205, 211, 223, 230
Somalia 223, 225, 233, 235, 245–7, 370, 420
source analysis 322–4
sovereigns 193–4, 197, 199, 203, 210, 212
sovereign states 17, 229, 236, 249, 254
sovereignty 71–2, 93, 95, 167, 213, 219, 343–4
special morality of war 17, 20, 286, 298–9
special operations 353, 355, 358, 367, 370, 379, 384–5 (p.494)
forces 163, 185, 351, 355, 357–8, 373, 379
officers 148, 356
standing orders 316, 319
state actors 36, 84, 164, 262, 392
state agencies 3, 11
state coercion 10, 433
state killings 4, 37, 423–4
state military organizations 74, 86
state of war 20, 24, 142, 145, 167, 189, 341
state responsibility 36, 75, 212, 219, 238–9, 252
state sovereignty see sovereignty
statistical identification 170
statistical risks 170–1
statistical v. identified targets 166
statistics 157, 326, 328, 346, 367
Statman, D. 7, 11–13, 15, 212, 412–13, 416, 422
status 10–11, 14–15, 32–4, 41, 48–51, 53–6, 78–80
al-Awlaki, Anwar 58–9, 218–19
civilian 82, 421, 423
combatant 14, 142–4, 161, 211, 213
concepts 62, 86–8
vs. conduct 85–9
legal 9, 90, 136, 144, 347, 442
moral 24, 95, 101, 165, 175, 285–6, 371
protected 34, 53, 65–6, 69, 81, 89, 188
status quo 35, 58, 156, 203–4, 210, 218
status rules vs. conduct rules 85–9
strict liability 250, 468
strikes
air 22, 332–4
preventative 243, 314
terrorist 246, 427
strong permissions 24, 447, 449–50, 454–9, 463
subjects of international law 33, 229, 240, 312
substantial involvement 237–40, 246
substantive criminal law 192–3
substantive objections 124, 126
substantive principles 268–70
subversion 372–3
‘for such time’ requirement 42, 57, 81–2, 89
suicide bombers 25, 84, 285–6, 291, 296, 321, 465
superior authorities 31–2, 365
superior orders 200–1
supplies 207, 236, 238, 254, 259, 271, 449
support
financial 64, 69
material 69, 77–8, 225
operational 69, 323
surrender 143, 165, 172, 182, 347, 363, 425
suspected criminals 36, 405
suspected militants 337–8
suspected terrorists 7, 14, 91, 135–6, 142–3, 156–9, 253–4
targeted killing of 16, 143, 163
suspects, criminal 7, 142–3
tacit agreement 11, 97
Taliban 22, 38, 233, 350, 375, 381–2, 384
leaders 335, 345, 350–1
members 420–1
Pakistani 245, 327, 368
tanks 67, 108, 215, 287, 289–90, 385, 422
targeted individuals 15, 79, 161, 223, 248
targeted killing see also Introductory Note
claims about process 327–42
in conventional war 410–15
decisions 167, 324
criteria-based reasoning in 303–25
definition 5
general objections to 430–3
epistemic objection 430–1
objection from virtue 431–2
weight 432–3
history of 34–6
justified 155, 161, 178, 253–84, 320, 427, 457–8
legitimacy of 94, 100–1, 104, 109, 182, 372, 405
morality of 1, 24, 291, 403, 421, 432, 442
operations 157, 163, 310, 331–2, 346–7, 357–9, 369
in peacetime 405–10
philosophical analysis 403–33
claims about 342–6
justifications for 225–6
potential impact on international law 248–52
program 223–4, 233, 351, 364
proponents of 7, 17–18
resolution of moral doubts about 363–6
peacetime 419–23
wartime 419–22
targeted terrorists 15, 43, 225, 423, 464
targeting
of civilians 6, 13, 83, 93, 315, 418, 422
of co-belligerents 60–89
linking principles 65–78
comparative evaluation 78–89
targeting of co-belligerents, linking problem 62–5
targets
civilian 40, 93, 109, 195
designated 85, 202, 206, 311
lawful 185, 199, 209, 215, 217, 219
legitimate 33, 103, 105, 107, 307–8, 313, 323
military 92–4, 100, 109, 152, 154, 230
technologies 2, 22–3, 335–6, 383, 385–6, 388–9, 391–2
drone 22, 165, 172, 178, 384, 386–8, 390
(p.495)
temporal components 256, 275–6, 278, 280
temporal imminence 271, 274–6
territorial integrity 63, 95, 224, 228, 236, 361
terrorism 1–7, 11–14, 32–7, 140–1, 144–5, 363–6, 415–19
international 33, 38, 56, 224, 244, 252, 360
sui generis standard for 423–8
threat of 6, 156, 244
terrorist activities/acts 3–4, 138, 140, 147, 149, 239–40, 255
terrorist atrocities 91, 115, 117, 123
planning 12, 91, 112
terrorist attacks 81–2, 91–3, 138, 140, 241–3, 246, 320–3
terrorist groups 9, 17, 19, 23, 80, 110, 239–40
terrorist operations 237, 239
terrorist organizations 7–10, 14–15, 63–5, 73–5, 86–9, 107–11, 240–1
non-state 50, 62
terrorist plots 313, 324, 349, 352, 428, 430
terrorists 8–16, 32–4, 77–83, 138–47, 255–7, 289–93, 415–31
dangerous 147–8, 328
definition 417–19
individual 65, 72, 74, 76–7, 82, 252
known 1, 5–7, 21, 25, 417, 422, 424
suspected 7, 14, 91, 135–6, 142–3, 156–9, 253–4
targeted 15, 43, 225, 423, 464
targeted killing of 12–14, 19, 27, 154–5, 255–7, 404–5, 409–10
terrorist tactics 2, 11, 155
terrorist threats 3, 8, 10–12, 416, 420–1, 424–5, 427–30
Tesón, F.R. 23–4, 125
theater of operations 413, 421
theater of war 308–9, 419–20
third parties 73, 87, 177, 289–91, 296, 428
third-party states 71–2
Third Reich 414–15
Thomson, J.J. 271, 287, 289–90, 292, 297, 408, 464, 475–6
‘thou shalt not kill’ 127, 445–6, 449
threatened harms 191–2, 199, 209, 257, 424, 428, 451
threats 36–40, 62–3, 99–102, 138–41, 181–2, 319–21, 424–8
deadly 11, 405
grave 100, 129
immediate 7, 67, 83, 146–7, 178–9, 192, 227
real 188, 312, 315
unjustified 407, 412
of wrongful harm 137, 140, 149
Threats, Deterrent 168, 469
threats of serious harm, imminent 285–6
threshold deontology 454–6, 462, 466
thresholds 54, 97, 228, 252, 410, 454–6, 466
torture 98, 122, 151, 154, 159, 436–7, 473
total war 107, 181
tracks 26, 40, 125, 353, 357, 452, 475–7
traditional combatants 46–7, 66, 79–80
traditional laws of war 162, 179–80
training 37, 55, 68, 83, 128, 317, 339–42
camps 8, 80
transnational terrorism 33, 38, 56, 224, 244, 252, 360
transparency 153, 374–5
trials 43, 47, 61, 68, 148–50, 152–3, 156–7
civilian 143, 323
criminal 62, 79, 136
trolley problem 26, 452, 475–7
trust 124, 201, 423, 459
truths, moral 435–6, 438, 457
UAVs see drones
under-inclusiveness 265, 275
unfettered discretion 306, 311, 317, 325
Uniacke, S. 287, 290, 292, 297
uniformed military 16, 184–5, 198, 211, 379
uniforms 2, 9–10, 32, 47, 73–4, 78, 89
unintended deaths 342, 404
unintended killings 137, 254
United Kingdom 43, 118, 239, 420, 434
United Nations 193, 206, 224, 241, 254
Charter 32, 60, 62, 186, 215, 224, 236–7, 240
Security Council 17, 204, 207, 213, 216–17, 219, 239
United States 32–9, 62–5, 74–7, 166–8, 223–6, 245–50, 337–43
Air Force 68, 336, 339–40, 353, 380
Central Command see CENTCOM
homeland security 327, 372–3, 420
Navy SEALs 1, 22, 148, 185, 345, 355–6, 363
Operation Neptune Spear 22, 150, 155, 161, 165, 292, 347–73, 403
and Pakistan 343–4
Secretary of Defense 21, 118, 329–32, 355
unjust combatants 117, 139
unjust enemies 412, 414, 418, 423
unjust enemy combatants 411–12, 414
unjustified homicide 192–3
unjustified threats 407, 412
unjust immediate threats 287–8
unjust threats 95–6, 98–101, 106–7, 116, 408, 414, 431
unjust wars 67, 101, 108, 175, 187–9, 412, 414
unlawful aggression 256, 258, 260–1, 271, 277 (p.496)
unlawful aggressors 199, 258, 260, 266, 274, 284
unlawful combatants 34, 42, 46–9, 143, 159–60, 164, 421–2
unlawful orders 319
unlawful threat 36, 192, 273
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) see drones
unprivileged belligerents 6, 48
utilitarianism 128, 439, 443, 460, 473, 477
vengeance 135, 209, 219
victims 254–6, 259–61, 269–70, 287, 289–91, 407–13, 470–1
of aggression 259–60
intended 20, 136, 139, 147, 257, 298, 457
potential 93, 101, 108, 137, 139, 242, 298
protection of 41, 49
targeted 254, 284
victory 71, 175, 194, 196, 210, 219, 353
chances of 411, 414–15, 431
violence 2–3, 54, 190–7, 201–3, 208–9, 376–7, 380–2
armed 22–3, 212, 231
collective 11, 54
political 288, 364, 417
state 45, 433
threat of 56, 191
violence of war 13, 154, 206–7
violent attack 208, 312, 474
violent conflicts 100, 232
virtue ethics 376, 390
Waldron, J. 12–14, 18, 87, 91, 98, 111, 154–5, 252, 432, 435
Walzer, M. 67, 116, 125, 161, 175, 189–90, 203, 244, 256, 285, 393, 396, 404, 410
war 93–7, 142–6, 154–69, 174–219, 392–9, 403–8, 410–18
authorized by UN or in self-defense 206–7
civil 251, 397, 413–14
convention 97, 106, 154–5, 393–4, 413
conventional 15, 105, 404, 410, 420, 422–3, 426–7
crimes 69, 169, 189, 313, 362, 383
and criminal prosecutions 208–10
criminals 6, 144–5, 418
declaration 205–6
declarations of see formal declarations of war
defensive 227–30, 248, 292, 408, 428
distinction between combatants and noncombatants 208
ethics of 378, 388, 390
geographical containment 207
just see just war
law of see law of war
laws of see laws of war
moral blurring of delineation 187–205
paradigm 421–3, 425
state of 20, 24, 142, 145, 167, 189, 341
on terror 34, 63, 75–6, 85, 142, 144, 146
unique nature of 188–200
unjust 67, 101, 108, 175, 187–9, 412, 414
violence of 13, 154, 206–7
warfare 23, 49, 60, 90, 95–9, 102, 104
asymmetric(al) 12, 62, 181, 185, 210–11
conventional 111, 379–80, 382
guerilla 91, 285
modern 101, 162, 165, 174, 363, 370
Warren, Earl 441–2
warring parties 95, 98, 206–8
warring states 206–7
warriors 31, 376, 408, 411, 414, 425–6
wars, asymmetrical 7, 215, 299, 404
wartime 17, 131, 189, 403–5, 410–13, 431
settings 419–21, 429–30
Watkins, K. 53, 55–7, 83
weak permissions 449–50, 454–6, 463–5
weapons 42–3, 66–7, 69–70, 73, 139, 187–8, 429–30
nuclear 39, 151, 197, 232, 252, 454, 466
systems 23, 67, 330, 380–1, 383, 385–6, 389
Wechsler, H 113–15
welfare, social 390, 395–9
Wikileaks 330, 344, 361
would-be attackers 475, 477
wrongdoers 135, 196, 458–9
wrongful actions 138–9, 182
wrongful harms 4, 24, 137, 154
threat of 137, 140, 149
wrongfulness requirements 281–3
wrongful parties 282–3
Zeno 258–9
Zohar, N. 96–7, 103, 105, 110