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Quantum Confined Laser DevicesOptical gain and recombination in semiconductors$
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Peter Blood

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199644513

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199644513.001.0001

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Laser action

Laser action

(p.50) 5 Laser action
Quantum Confined Laser Devices

Peter Blood

Oxford University Press

Laser action arises from round-trip, coherent amplification of light brought about by optical feedback due to reflection at the end mirrors, initiated by emission coupled into the mode specified by the spontaneous emission factor. The gain for laser action, and hence the threshold current, the emission wavelength, and the longitudinal mode spacing are given by the amplitude and phase of the laser mode in the presence of feedback. Laser action couples the photon and carrier densities through stimulated emission and this leads to a pinning of the quasi-Fermi levels and carrier density above threshold. The assumptions that underlie the definition of threshold and use of the relation between peak gain and recombination current to determine threshold are introduced. The injection efficiency, internal radiative quantum efficiency below threshold, and the internal and external differential quantum efficiencies above threshold, related by the light extraction factor, and power conversion efficiency are defined.

Keywords:   spontaneous emission factor, threshold, longitudinal mode, quasi-Femi level, pinning, threshold current, recombination current, quantum efficiency, differential efficiency, power conversion efficiency

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