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Quantum Confined Laser DevicesOptical gain and recombination in semiconductors$
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Peter Blood

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199644513

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199644513.001.0001

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Rate equations for laser operation

Rate equations for laser operation

Chapter:
(p.215) 13 Rate equations for laser operation
Source:
Quantum Confined Laser Devices
Author(s):

Peter Blood

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199644513.003.0013

Rate equations for the electron and photon populations provide insight into the variation of light output with current and the high-frequency modulation response of the laser. Above threshold the average photon lifetime exceeds the cavity round-trip time. The steady-state solution of these equations shows that the gain never becomes exactly equal to the optical loss, as assumed in the traditional description of threshold, the small difference being made up by the spontaneous emission coupled into the lasing mode given by the spontaneous emission factor. Steady-state solutions are also obtained for quantum dot lasers in the random population regime, where quasi-equilibrium is not established, by solving electron, photon, and phonon coupled rate equations. Rate equations also give the small signal modulation response of the laser and the resonance frequency, including the influence of carrier transport in quantum well devices. The chapter ends with remarks on what constitutes evidence for laser action.

Keywords:   rate equation, photon lifetime, round-trip time, spontaneous emission factor, quantum dot, random population, resonance frequency, carrier transport

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