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Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals$

Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper, Shane K. Maloney, Francisco Bozinovic, and Ariovaldo P. Cruz Neto

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199642717

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642717.001.0001

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(p.459) Appendix

(p.459) Appendix

Source:
Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals
Author(s):

Philip C. Withers

Christine E. Cooper

Shane K. Maloney

Francisco Bozinovic

Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.459) Appendix

Classification of the families of Mammalia, including extant and fossil (†) mammals. This taxonomic hierarchy does not directly reflect the phylogenetic arrangement of Atlantogenata (Xenarthra + Afrotheria) and Boreoeutheria (Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria); see section 1.1.1 and Table 1.1. Based on McKenna and Bell (1997); Springer et al. (2003); Kielan-Jaworowska et al. (2004); Wilson and Reeder (2005); Nowak and Dickman (2005); Rose (2006); Huchon et al. (2007); and Murphy et al. (2007).

Class MAMMALIA

                        • Adelobasileus, †Hadroconium, †Tricuspes

                        • †Reigitheriidae

                        • †Kuehneotheriidae

                        • †Sinoconodontidae

              • Order †MORGANUCODONTA

                        • Gondwanadon, †Indotherium

                        • †Morganucodontidae

                        • †Megazostrodontidae

              • Order †DOCODONTA

                        • †Docodontidae

              • Order †SHUOTHERIDIA

                        • †Shuotheriidae

              • Order †EUTRICONODONTA

                        • †Amphilestidae

                        • †Triconodontidae

                        • †Gobiconodontidae

                        • †Austrotriconodontidae

              • Order †GONDWANATHERIA

                        • †Ferugliotheriidae

                        • †Sudamericidae

   Subclass AUSTRALOSPHENIDA

                        • Ambondro, †Asfalotomylos

                        • †Kollikodontidae

              • (p.460) Order †AUSKTRIBOSPHENIDA

                        • †Ausktribosphenidae

              • Order MONOTREMATA (‘Prototheria’ —monotremes)

                        • Ornithorhynchidae: platypus

                        • Tachyglossidae: echidnas

                        • †Steropodontidae

   Subclass †ALLOTHERIA

              • Order †HARAMIYIDA

                • Suborder Theroteinida

                        • †Theroteinidae

                • Suborder HARAMIYOIDEA

                        • †Haramiyidae

                        • †Haramiyaviidae

                        • †Eleutherodontidae

              • Order †MULTITUBERCULATA

                • Suborder PLAGIAULACIDA

                        • †Allodontidae

                        • †Zofiabaataridae

                        • †Paulchoffatidae

                        • †Hahnodontidae

                        • †Pinheirodontidae

                        • †Plagiaulacidae

                        • †Eobaataridae

                        • †Albionbaataridae

                        • †Arginbaataridae

                • Suborder †CIMOLODONTA

                        • Djadochtatherium

                        • †Sloanbaataridae

                        • †Cimolodontidae

                        • †Ptilodontidae

                        • †Cimolomyidae

                        • †Eucosmodontidae

                        • †Taeniolabididae

                        • †Microcosmodontidae

                        • †Neoplagiaulocidae

                        • †Kogaionida

(p.461)    Subclass TRECHNOTHERIA

        • Superorder †SYMMETRODONTA

                      • †Amphidontidae

                      • †Tinodontidae

                      • †Spalacotheriidae

        • Superorder †DRYOLESTOIDEA

                      • †Vincelestidae

              • Order †DRYOLESTIDA

                        • †Dryolestidae

                        • †Paurodontidae

              • Order †AMPHITHERIIDA

                        • †Amphitheriidae

        • Superorder †ZATHERIA

              • Order †PERAMURA

                        • †Peramuridae

                        • †Arguitheriidae

                        • †Arguimuridae

   Subclass BOREOSPHENIDA

              • Order †AEGIALODONTIA

                        • †Aegialodontidae

  • Infraclass METATHERIA

                        • Holoclemsia, †Sinodelphys

    • Cohort †DELTATHEROIDA

              • Order †DELTATHEROIDEA

                        • †Deltatheriidae

              • Order †ASIADELPHIA

                        • †Asiatheriidae

    • Cohort MARSUPIALIA (marsupials)

                        • Kokopellia

      • Magnaorder AMERIDELPHIA

                        • †Alphadontidae

                        • †Pediomyidae

                        • †Stagodontidae

                        • †Protodidelphinae

              • Order DIDELPHIMORPHIA

                        • †Peradectidae

                        • (p.462) †Sparassocynidae

                        • Didelphidae: opossums

              • Order PAUCITUBERCULATA

                      • Superfamily †Caroloameghiniodea

                        • †Caroloameghiniidae

                        • †Glasbiidae

                      • Superfamily Caenolestoidea

                        • †Sternbergiidae

                        • †Palaeothentidae

                        • †Abderitidae

                        • Caenolestidae: rat and shrew opossums

                      • Superfamily †Polydolopoidea

                        • †Sillustaniidae

                        • †Polydolopidae

                        • †Prepidolopidae

                        • †Bonapartheriidae

                      • Superfamily †Argyrolagoidea

                        • †Argyrolagidae

                        • †Patagoniidae

                        • †Groeberiidae

              • Order †SPARASSODONTA

                        • †Mayulestidae

                        • †Hondadelphidae

                        • †Borhyaenidae

                        • †Proborhyaenidae

                        • †Haliacynidae

      • Magnaorder AUSTRALIDELPHIA

                        • Djarthia

        • Superorder MICROBIOTHERIA

                        • Microbiotheriidae: monito del monte

        • Superorder EOMETATHERIA

              • Order NOTORYCTEMORPHIA

                        • Notoryctidae: marsupial moles

          • Grandorder DASYUROMORPHIA

                        • †Thylacinidae: recently extinct Tasmanian tiger

                        • Dasyuridae: Tasmanian devil, quolls, marsupial mice, cats

                        • Myrmecobiidae: numbat

          • (p.463) Grandorder SYNDACTYLI

              • Order PERAMELIA

                        • Peramelidae: bandicoots

                        • Peroryctidae: spiny bandicoots

              • Order DIPROTODONTIA

                        • †Palorchestidae

                        • †Wynardiidae

                        • †Thylacoleonidae

                        • Tarsipedidae: honey possum

                      • Superfamily Vombatoidea

                        • †Ilariidae

                        • †Diprotodontidae

                        • Vombatidae: wombats

                      • Superfamily Phalangeroidea

                        • Phalangeridae: phalangers

                        • Burramyidae: pygmy possums

                        • Macropodidae: rat kangaroos, kangaroos, wallabies

                        • Petauridae: gliders

                        • †Ektopodontidae

                        • Phascolarctidae: koala

                        • †Pilkipildridae

                        • †Miralinidae

                        • Acrobatidae: feather-tail gliders, pen-tailed phalanger

  • Infraclass EUTHERIA

                        • Eomaia, †Montanalestes

              • Order †ASIORYCTITHERIA†Asioryctidae

                        • †Kennalestidae

    • Cohort PLACENTALIA (placental mammals)

              • Order †BIBYMALAGASIA

              • Order XENARTHRA (edentates)

                • Suborder CINGULATA

                      • Superfamily Dasypodoidea

                        • Dasypodidae: armadillos

                        • †Peltephilidae

                      • Superfamily †Glyptodontoidea

                        • †Pampatheriidae

                        • †Palaeopeltidae

                        • †Glyptodontidae

                • (p.464) Suborder PILOSA

                  • Infraorder VERMILINGUA

                        • Myrmecophagidae: giant anteaters

                        • Cyclopedidae: pygmy anteater

                  • Infraorder PHYLLOPHAGA

                        • Pseudoglyptodon

                        • †Entelopidae

                        • Bradypodidae: three-toed sloths

                    • Parvorder †MYLODONTA

                        • †Scelidotheriidae

                        • †Mylodontidae

                    • Parvorder MEGATHERIA

                        • †Megatheriidae

                        • †Nothrotheridae

                        • Megalonychidae: two-toed sloths

        • Superorder INSECTIVORA

              • Order †LEPTICTIDA

                        • Gypsonictops

                        • †Leptictidae

                        • †Pseudorhyncocyonidae

              • Order LIPOTYPHLA

                        • †Adapisoriculidae

                • Suborder ERINACEOMORPHA

                        • Erinaceidae: hedgehogs

                        • †Sespedectidae

                        • †Scenopagidae

                        • †Amphilemuridae

                        • †Adapisoricidae

                        • †Creotarsidae

                        • †Chambilestidae

                • Suborder SORICOMORPHA

                        • Otlestes, †Batodon, †Paranyctoides

                        • †Geolabididae

                      • Superfamily Soricoidea

                        • †Nyctitheriidae

                        • Soricidae: shrews

                        • (p.465) †Plesiosoricidae

                        • †Nesophontidae

                        • Solenodontidae: solenodons

                        • †Micropternodontidae

                        • †Apternodontidae

                      • Superfamily Tenrecoidea

                        • Tenrecidae: tenrecs

                      • Superfamily Talpoidea

                        • †Proscalopidae

                        • Talpidae: moles

                        • †Dimylidae

                • Suborder CHRYSOCHLOROMORPHA

                        • Chrysochloridae: golden moles

        • Superorder ANAGALIDA

                        • †Zalambdalestidae

                        • †Anagalidae

                        • †Pseudictopidae

              • Order MACROSCELIDEA

                        • Macroscelididae: elephant shrews

          • Grandorder GLIRES

            • Mirorder DUPLICIDENTATA

                        • †MIMOTONIDA

                        • †Mimotonidae

              • Order LAGOMORPHA

                        • Ochotonidae: pikas

                        • Leporidae: rabbits and hares

            • Mirorder SIMPLICIDENTATA

                        • Sinomylus

              • Order †MIXODONTIA

                        • †Eurymylidae

              • Order RODENTIA

                        • †Alagomyidae

                        • †Laredomyidae

                      • Superfamily Ctenodactyloidea

                        • †Cocomyidae

                        • †Chapattimyidae

                        • †Yuomyidae

                        • (p.466) †Tamqauammyidae

                        • †Gobiomyidae

                        • Ctenodactylidae: gundis

                        • Diatomyidae: Laotian rock rat

                • Suborder SCIUROMORPHA

                        • †Ischyromyidae

                        • †Paramyidae

                        • †Sciuravidae

                        • †Cylindrodontidae

                        • †Theridomyidae

                        • Sciuridae: squirrels

                        • Gliridae: dormice

                      • Superfamily Aplodontoidea

                        • Aplodontidae: mountain beaver

                        • †Allomyidae

                        • †Mylagaulidae

                      • Superfamily Casteroidea

                        • †Eutypomyidae

                        • Castoridae: beavers

                • Suborder MYOMORPHA

                        • †Protoptychidae

                  • Infraorder MYODONTA

                        • †Armintomyidae

                        • †Simimyidae

                      • Superfamily Dipodoidea

                        • Zapodidae: jumping mice

                        • Dipodidae: jerboas, jumping mice, birch mice

                      • Superfamily Muroidea

                        • Muridae: Old World rats and mice, gerbils, whistling rats

                        • Cricetidae: New World rats and mice, hamsters, voles, lemmings

                  • Infraorder GEOMORPHA

                      • Superfamily †Eomyoidea

                        • †Eomyidae

                      • Superfamily Geomyoidea

                        • †Florentiamyidae

                        • †Heliscomyidae

                        • Geomyidae: pocket gophers

                        • Heteromyidae: pocket mice, kangaroo rats

                • (p.467) Suborder ANOMALUROMORPHA

                      • Superfamily Pedetoidea

                        • Pedetidae: springhare

                        • †Parapedetidae

                      • Superfamily Anomaluroidea

                        • †Zegdoumyidae

                        • Anomaluridae: scaly tailed squirrels

                • Suborder HYSTRICOGNATHA

                        • †Tsaganomyidae

                  • Infraorder HYSTRICHOGNATHI

                        • Hystricidae: Old World porcupines

                        • Erethizontidae: New World porcupines

                        • †Myophiomyidae

                        • †Diamantomyidae

                        • †Phiomyidae

                        • Petromuridae: dassie rats

                        • Thryonomyidae: cane rats

                    • Parvorder BATHYERGOMORPHI

                        • Bathyergidae: mole rats

                    • Parvorder CAVIIDA

                      • Superfamily Cavioidea

                        • Agoutidae: agoutis and pacas

                        • †Eocardiidae

                        • Dinomyidae: pacarana

                        • Caviidae: cavies

                        • Hydrochoeridae: capybara

                      • Superfamily Octodontoidea

                        • Octodontidae: degus, tuco-tucos

                        • Echimyidae: spiny rats, porcupine rats, urares

                        • Capromyidae: hutias, jutias

                        • †Heptaxodontidae

                      • Superfamily Chinchilloidea

                        • Chinchillidae: chinchillas, viscachas

                        • †Neoepiblemidae

                        • Abrocomidae: rat chinchillas

        • Superorder ARCHONTA

                        • Deccanolestes

              • Order Chiroptera

                • (p.468) Suborder MEGACHIROPTERA

                        • Archaeopteropus

                        • Pteropodidae: flying foxes

                • Suborder MICROCHIROPTERA

                        • Eppsinycteris, †Australonycteris

                        • †Icaronycteridae

                        • †Archaeonycteridae

                        • †Hassianycteridae

                        • †Palaeochiropterygidae

                  • Infraorder YINOCHIROPTERA

                        • Rhinopomatidae: mouse-tailed bats

                        • Craseonycteridae: bumblebee bats

                        • Nycteridae: hispid bats

                        • Megadermatidae: false vampire bats

                        • Rhinolophidae: horseshoe bats

                        • Hipposeridae: Old World leaf-nosed bats

                  • Infraorder YANGOCHIROPTERA

                        • Emballonuridae: sac-winged bats

                        • †Philisidae

                        • Vespertilionidae: vesper bats

                        • Molossidae: free-tailed bats

                        • Mystacinidae: New Zealand short-tailed bats

                        • Noctilionidae: fishing bats

                        • Mormoopidae: spectacled bats

                        • Phyllostomidae: New World leaf-nosed, vampire bats

                        • Myzopodidae: Old World sucker-footed bats

                        • Furipteridae: smoky bats

                        • Thyropteridae: New World sucker-footed bats

                        • Natalidae: funnel-eared bats

          • Grandorder EUARCHONTA

                        • †Mixodectidae

              • Order DERMOPTERA

                        • †Plagiomenidae

                        • Galeopithecidae: colugos

              • Order SCANDENTIA

                        • Tupaiidae: tree shrews

              • Order PRIMATES

                        • †Purgatoriidae

                        • (p.469) †Microsyopidae

                        • †Micromomyidae

                        • †Picromomyidae

                        • †Toliapinidae

                      • Superfamily †Paramomyoidea

                        • †Palaechthonidae

                        • †Paromyomyidae

                        • †Picrodontidae

                      • Superfamily †Plesiadapoidea

                        • †Plesiadapidae

                        • †Carpolestidae

                        • †Saxonellidae

                • Suborder EUPRIMATES

                  • Infraorder STREPSIRRHINI

                        • †Plesiopithecidae

                    • Parvorder LEMURIFORMES

                      • Superfamily †Adapoidea

                        • †Adapidae

                        • †Notharctidae

                        • †Sivaladapidae

                      • Superfamily Lemuroidea

                        • Lemuridae: lemurs

                        • Lepilemuridae: sportive lemur

                        • Daubentoniidae: aye-aye

                        • Indriidae: indris and sifakas

                        • Cheirogaleidae: dwarf lemurs

                      • Superfamily Loroidea

                        • Loridae: lorises

                        • Galagidae: galagos, bushbabies

                  • Infraorder HAPLORHINI

                    • Parvorder TARSIIFORMES

                        • †Omomyidae

                        • Tarsiidae: tarsiers

                    • Parvorder ANTHROPOIDEA

                        • Afrotarsius

                        • †Eosimiidae

                        • †Parapithecidae

                        • †Amphipithecidae

                        • (p.470) †Proteopithecidae

                      • ‘PLATYRRHINI’

                      • Superfamily Ceboidea

                        • Callitrichidae: marmosets, tamarins

                        • Cebidae: capuchin and squirrel monkeys

                        • Aotidae: night monkeys

                        • Pitheciidae: titis, saki, uakaris

                        • Atelidae: howler, spider, and woolly monkeys

                      • ‘CATARRHINI’

                      • †Superfamily Propliopithecoidea

                        • †Oligopithecidae

                        • †Propliopithecidae

                        • †Pliopithecidae

                      • Superfamily Cercopithecoidea

                        • Cercopithecidae: Old World monkeys, colobuses

                      • Superfamily Hominoidea

                        • †Chororapithecidae

                        • †Proconulidae

                        • †Afropithecidae

                        • †Pliobatidae

                        • Hylobatidae: gibbons

                        • Hominidae: humans, great apes (orangutan, gorillas, chimpanzees)

        • Superorder FERAE

              • Order †CREODONTA

                        • †Hyaenodontidae

                        • †Oxyaenidae

              • Order CARNIVORA

                        • †Viverravidae

                        • †Miacidae

                • Suborder FELIFORMIA

                        • †Nimravidae

                        • Felidae: pantherine and other cats

                        • Viverridae: civets, Asiatic palm civets

                        • Nandiniidae: African palm civets

                        • Herpestidae: mongooses

                        • Hyaenidae: hyaenas, aardwolf

                • (p.471) Suborder CANIFORMIA

                  • Infraorder CANOIDEA

                        • Canidae: dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals, dingo

                  • Infraorder ARCTOIDEA

                    • Parvorder URSIDA

                      • Superfamily Ursoidea

                        • Ursidae: bears

                        • †Amphicyonidae

                      • Superfamily Phocoidea (Pinnipedia)

                        • Enaliarctos

                        • Otariidae: eared seals

                        • Phocidae: earless (true) seals

                        • Odobenidae: walrus

                    • Parvorder MUSTELIDA

                        • Mustelidae: weasels, skunks, and relatives

                        • Procyonidae: ringtails, olingos, kinkajou, raccoons, coatis, red panda

            • Mirorder †CIMOLESTA

                        • †Didymoconidae

                        • †Wyolestidae

              • Order †DIDELPHODONTA

                        • †Palaeoryctidae

                        • †Cimolestidae

              • Order †APATOTHERIA

                        • †Apatemyidae

              • Order †TAENIODONTA

                        • †Stylinodontidae

              • Order †TILLODONTIA

                        • †Esthonychidae

              • Order †PANTODONTA

                        • †Harpyodidae

                        • †Bemalambdidae

                        • †Pastoralodontidae

                        • †Pantolambdidae

                        • †Titanoideidae

                        • †Barylambdidae

                        • †Cyriacotheriidae

                        • †Pantolambdodontidae

                        • †Coryphodontidae

              • (p.472) Order †PANTOLESTA

                        • †Pantolestidae

                        • †Pentacodontidae

                        • †Paroxyclaenidae

                        • †Ptolemaiidae

              • Order PHOLIDOTA

                        • †Eomanidae

                        • †Patriomanidae

                        • Manidae: pangolins

              • Order ?PHOLIDOTA

                • Suborder †PALAENODONTA

                        • †Escavadodontidae

                        • †Epoicotheriidae

                        • †Metacheiromyidae

                • Suborder †ERNANODONTA

                        • †Ernanodontidae

        • Superorder UNGULATOMORPHA

                        • †Zhelestidae

          • Grandorder UNGULATA (hoofed ungulate mammals)

              • Order †CONDYLARTHRA

                        • †Arctocyonidae

                        • †Quettacyonidae

                        • †Periptychidae

                        • †Phenacodontidae

                        • †Hyopsodontidae

                        • †Mioclaenidae

                        • †Didolodontidae

              • Order TUBULIDENTATA

                      • Orycteropodidae: aardvark

              • Order †DINOCERATA

                        • †Prodinoceratidae

                        • †Uintatheriidae

              • Order †ARCTOSTYLOPIDA

                        • †Arctostylopidae

              • Order ARTIODACTYLA (even-toed ungulates)

                • Suborder SUIFORMES

                        • †Raoellidae

                        • †Choeropotamidae

                      • (p.473) Superfamily Suoidea

                        • Suidae: pigs

                        • Tayassuidae: peccaries

                        • †Santheriidae

                        • Hippopotamidae: hippos

                      • Superfamily †Dichobunoidea

                        • †Dichobunidae

                        • †Cebochoeridae

                        • †Mixtotheriidae

                        • †Helohyidae

                      • Superfamily †Anthracotherioidea

                        • †Haplobunodontidae

                        • †Anthracotheriidae

                      • Superfamily †Anoplotheroidea

                        • †Dacrytheriidae

                        • †Anoplotheriidae

                        • †Cainotheriidae

                      • Superfamily †Oreodontoidea

                        • †Agriochoeridae

                        • †Oreodontidae

                      • Superfamily †Entelodontoidea

                        • †Entelodontidae

                • Suborder TYLOPODA

                        • †Xiphodontidae

                      • Superfamily Cameloidea

                        • Camelidae: camels and llamas

                        • †Oromerycidae

                      • Superfamily †Protoceratoidea

                        • †Protoceratidae

                • Suborder RUMINANTIA

                        • †Amphimerycidae

                        • †Hypertragulidae

                        • Tragulidae: mouse deer

                        • †Leptomerycidae

                        • †Bachitheriidae

                        • †Lophiomerycidae

                        • †Gelocidae

                      • (p.474) Superfamily Cervoidea

                        • Moschidae: musk deer

                        • Antilocapridae: pronghorn

                        • †Palaeomerycidae

                        • †Hoplitomerycidae

                        • Cervidae: deer

                      • Superfamily Giraffoidea

                        • †Climacoceratidae

                        • Giraffidae: giraffe and okapi

                      • Superfamily Bovoidea

                        • Bovidae: cattle, antelope, and relatives

            • Mirorder CETE

              • Order †MESONYCHIA

                        • †Triisodontidae

                        • †Mesonychidae

                        • †Hapalodectidae

              • Order CETACEA

                • Suborder †ARCHAEOCETI

                        • †Basilosauridae

                        • †Pakicetidae

                        • †Ambulocetidae

                        • †Protocetidae

                        • †Remingtonocetidae

                • Suborder ODONTOCETI

                      • Superfamily Physeteroidea

                        • Physeteridae: sperm whales

                      • Superfamily Hyperoodontoidea

                        • Hyperoodontidae: beaked whales

                      • Superfamily Platanistoidea

                        • Platanistidae: river dolphins

                      • Superfamily Delphinoidea

                        • Delphinidae: dolphins

                        • Pontoporiidae: La Plata River dolphin

                        • Lipotidae: baiji

                        • Iniidae: Amazon River dolphin

                        • †Kentridontidae

                        • Monodontidae: beluga and narwhal

                        • (p.475) †Odobenocetopsidae

                        • †Dalpiazinidae

                        • †Acrodelphinidae

                        • Phocoenidae: porpoises

                        • †Albireonidae

                        • †Hemisyntrachelidae

                • Suborder MYSTICETI

                        • †Llanocetidae

                        • †Aetiocetidae

                        • †Mammalodontidae

                        • †Kekenodontidae

                        • †Cetotheriidae

                        • Balaenopteridae: rorquals and grey whales

                        • Balaenidae: right and bowhead whales

            • Mirorder ALTUNGULATA

                        • Radinskya, †Olbitherium

              • Order PERISSODACTYLA

                • Suborder HIPPOMORPHA

                      • Superfamily Equoidea

                        • Equidae: horses, donkeys, zebra

                        • †Palaeotheriidae

                • Suborder TAPIROMORPHA

                        • †Isectolophidae

                  • Infraorder CERATOMORPHA

                      • Superfamily Tapiroidea

                        • †Helaletidae

                        • †Deperetellidae

                        • †Lophialetidae

                        • Tapiridae: tapirs

                      • Superfamily Rhinoceratoidea

                        • †Hyrachyidae

                        • †Hyracodontidae

                        • †Amynodontidae

                        • Rhinocerotidae: rhinoceroses

                  • Infraorder †ANCYLOPODA

                        • †Eomoropidae

                        • (p.476) †Chalicotheriidae

                        • †Lophiodontidae

                • Suborder †TITANOTHERIOMORPHA

                    • Superfamily †Brontotherioidea

                      • †Brontotheriidae

                      • †Anchilophidae

              • Order PAENUNGULATA

                • Suborder HYRACOIDEA

                        • †Pliohyracidae

                        • Procaviidae: hyraxes, dassies

                • Suborder TETHYTHERIA

                  • Infraorder †EMBRITHOPODA

                        • †Phenacolophidae

                        • †Arsinoitheriidae

                  • Infraorder SIRENIA

                        • †Prorastomidae

                        • †Protosirenidae

                        • Dugongidae: dugongs

                        • Trichechidae: manatees

                  • Infraorder †DESMOSTYLIA

                        • †Desmostylidae

                  • Infraorder PROBOSCIDEA

                        • †Anthracobunidae

                        • †Phosphatheriidae

                        • †Numidotheriidae

                        • †Moeritheriidae

                        • †Barytheriidae

                        • †Deinotheriidae

                        • †Palaeomastodontidae

                        • †Phiomiidae

                        • †Hemimastodontidae

                        • †Mammutidae

                        • †Gomphotheriidae

                        • Elephantidae: elephants

            • Mirorder †MERIDIUNGULATA

                        • Amilnedwardsia

              • (p.477) Order †LITOPTERNA

                        • †Protolipternidae

                        • †Notonychopidae

                        • †Macraucheniidae

                        • †Adianthidae

                        • †Proterotheriidae

              • Order †NOTOUNGULATA

                • Suborder †NOTIOPROGONIA

                        • †Henricosborniidae

                        • †Notostylopidae

                • Suborder †TOXODONTIA

                        • †Isotemnidae

                        • †Notohippidae

                        • †Leontiniidae

                        • †Toxodontidae

                        • †Homalodotheriidae

                • Suborder †TYPOTHERIA

                        • †Oldfieldthomasiidae

                        • †Interatheriidae

                        • †Archaeopithecidae

                        • †Mesotheriidae

                        • †Campanorchidae

                • Suborder †HEGETOTHERIA

                        • †Archaeohyracidae

                        • †Hegetotheriidae

              • Order †ASTRAPOTHERIA

                        • †Eoastrapostylopidae

                        • †Trigonostylopidae

                        • †Astrapotheriidae

              • Order †XENUNGULATA

                        • †Carodniidae

              • Order †PYROTHERIA