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Dipterocarp Biology, Ecology, and Conservation$

Jaboury Ghazoul

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199639656

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199639656.001.0001

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(p.257) Appendix 3 Flowering Characteristics and Pollinators of Dipterocarp Species

(p.257) Appendix 3 Flowering Characteristics and Pollinators of Dipterocarp Species

Source:
Dipterocarp Biology, Ecology, and Conservation
Author(s):

Jaboury Ghazoul

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Species

Region

Flowering frequency

Anthesis

Flower size (mm)

Floral reward

Flower colour

Flower shape

Main pollinators

Reference

(p.258) Aseasonal forest zone (Malesia)

Dipterocarpus geniculatus

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

1830–1800

Pollen, corolla

Orange

Campanulate, deeply lobed

Apis dorsata, Scarabidae

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Dipteropcarpus globosus

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

1830–1800

Pollen, corolla

White, purple

Campanulate, deeply lobed

Apis dorsata

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Dipteropcarpus pachyphyllus

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Night

Nectar

White

Campanulate, deeply lobed

Geometridae

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Dipteropcarpus tempehes

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

0500–0430

Pollen

Yellow

Campanulate, deeply lobed

Apis dorsata

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Dryobalanops aromatica

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

0500–1200

Pollen

White

Campanulate, deeply lobed

Meliponini in non-GF; Apis dorsata in GF

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Dryobalanops lanceolota

Lambir, Sarawak

G

0500–1200

Pollen

White

Spiral

Meliponini in non-GF; Apis dorsata in GF

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Hopea pterigota

Lambir, Sarawak

R

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Hopea sphaerocarpa

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Pollen

Red

Spiral, cup

Trigona, Sciaridae

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea agami

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea balanocarpoides

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea beccariana

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Meliponine bees; Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005); Nagamitsu et al. (1999)

Shorea bullata

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea confusa

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

0700–1800

Nectar, pollen, corolla

Purple

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea falciferoides

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

White

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea ferruginea

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea havilandii

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

White

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

(p.259) Shorea macrophylla

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Pink

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea macroptera

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Pink

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea ochracea

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

0630–0600

Nectar, pollen, corolla

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea parvifolia

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

1730–

1730 +

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea patoiensis

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Night

Corolla, pollen

White

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea pilosa

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea smithiana

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea superba

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

White

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Shorea xanthophylla

Lambir, Sarawak

GF

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Vatica micrantha

Lambir, Sarawak

R

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

White

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Vatica aff. parvifolia

Lambir, Sarawak

R

Day, night

Corolla, pollen

White

Spiral, cup

Chrysomelid and curculionid beetles feeding on floral tissue

Momose and Hamid Karim (2005)

Seasonal forest zones (Continental Southeast Asia, India, Seychelles)

Shorea trapezifolia (sect. Doona)

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

05:30–09:30

5–7 mm

Pollen

White

Cup

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

Shorea congestiflora (sect. Doona)

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

05:30–09:30

6–8 mm

Pollen

White

Cup

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

Shorea affinis (sect. Doona)

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

05:30–09:30

6–9 mm

Pollen

White

Cup

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

Shorea cordifolia (sect. Doona)

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

05:30–09:30

7–10 mm

Pollen

White

Cup

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

Shorea disticha (sect. Doona)

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

05:30–09:30

12–13 mm

Pollen

White

Cup

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

(p.260) Shorea megistophylla (sect. Doona)

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

05:30–09:30

12–16 mm

Pollen

White

Cup

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

Shorea stipularis (sect. Anthoshorea)

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

05:30–09:30

15–19 mm

Pollen

White

Spiral, twisted elongate petals

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

Vatica copallifera

Sinharaja, Sri Lanka

R

00:00–06:00

20 mm

Pollen

White

Cup

A. dorsata, A. indica

Dayanandan et al. (1990)

Vateria indica

India

R

White

Open cup

A. dorsata, A. cerana

Ismail et al. (2014)

Shorea robusta

India

R

A. dorsata, A. cerana, Meliponini

Khatua et al. (1998)

Shorea roxburghii

India, Continental Southeast Asia

R

05:00–06:00

30 mm

Nectar, pollen

White

Cup

Apis dorsata, A. cerana, A. florea, Trigonula iridipennis, and occasional flies, wasps and butterflies

Solomon Raju et al. (2005)

Dipterocarpus obtusifolius

Thailand

R

18:00–20:00

80–100 mm

Nectar, pollen

Purple and white

Campanulate, deeply lobed

Sphingid moths; butterflies and large bees during the day

Ghazoul (1997)

Dipterocarpus tuberculatus

Thailand

R

18:00–20:00

80–100 mm

Nectar, pollen

Purple and white

Campanulate, deeply lobed

Sphingid and other large moths

Ghazoul, pers. obs.

Shorea siamensis

Thailand

R

06:30–08:00

15 mm

Nectar, pollen

Yellow

Spiral, cup

Meliponine bees

Ghazoul et al. (1998)

Shorea obtusa

Thailand

R

20:00–00:00

8–10 mm

Corolla, pollen

Pale

Spiral, cup

Small beetles

Ghazoul, pers. obs.

GF, flowering primarily during synchronous general flowering events; G, flowering mainly during general flowering events, but also flowering irregularly outside such events; R, regular flowering on an annual or biannual basis.