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The Social NetUnderstanding our online behavior$

Yair Amichai-Hamburger

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199639540

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199639540.001.0001

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(p.275) Subject Index

(p.275) Subject Index

Source:
The Social Net
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Page numbers in italic indicate figures and tables
accessibility 6, 125
accountability 52
acquaintance potential 224–5
adaptive structuration theory 183–4
addiction to Internet 14
additivity hypothesis 88
affect, intergroup relations 222, 229, 231–4, 244
aggregated feedback systems 89, 90
aggression 120–42
accessibility 125
alienation 126
anonymity 128–9, 136
child abuse 132–3
cognitive-neoassociation model 124
computer viruses 134–5
computer worms 135
criminal activity 134–5
cyber attacks 134–5
cyber-bullying 66, 135–6
cyber stalking 132
decentralization 128
definition 122–3
disinhibition 128–31
extremism 130, 210
facilitating characteristics of Internet 124–8
“fishing” 130, 131
General Learning Model 124
hacking 134–5
hate groups 130, 210
hostile 123
identity concealment 132–3
indirect 123
instrumental 123
interactivity 125–8
moral disengagement 133, 135
motivation 125
opportunities for 120–1, 131–6
privacy 128–9
racism 130
social learning theory 124–8
social psychological processes 123–4
social support 129–31
stalking 131–2
suicide sites 130–1
terrorism 120–2, 126
unmonitored activity 129
unregulated activity 128
video game violence 124, 125–8
web page defacement 135
alienation 126
altruistic prosocial behavior 148
animal studies, identity misrepresentation 55–6
anonymity 2–3, 48, 225
actor effects 53–4
aggression 128–9, 136
continuous construct 47
group decision making 106–7
perceiver effects 55
persuasion 91
prejudice and discrimination 202, 203–4, 215–16
social 129
social construct 47
technical 129
transformational leadership 189–90
antisocial behaviour 53
avatars 11–12, 46, 48, 49, 51, 54, 56, 233–4
BAR theory 68–9
Bayes’ theorem 100
behavior
identity manipulation 49–50
intergroup bias 222
leadership 182
benign disinhibition 66
birds, identity misrepresentation 56
Black Planet 208
black sheep effect 174
blogs 3, 11, 238, 241
brain activity 25–6, 127–8
Breyer, Justice 126–7
bulletin board systems 69
bystander help 144, 147
case studies 233
Catfish 45–6
Center for Multiculturalism and Technology 236, 240
channel expansion theory 185–6
chat rooms 10–11, 70–1, 209–10
child abuse 132–3
circle heuristic 102
citizen science projects 146, 154
cloud 21–2
cognition
intergroup relations 221–2, 229–31
social influences 23
cognitive-neoassociation model 124
cognitive restructuring 133, 135
cohesiveness 104
collaborative story-telling 233
communication
socioemotional 168–9
task-oriented 168
virtual teams 112–13
(p.276) community development projects 146
community forums 209–10
computer viruses 134–5
computer worms 135
conflict in virtual teams 113–14
congruity theory 174
contact hypothesis 220, 222–5
context
prosocial behavior 145–6, 155
psychological context of Internet 1–8
contingency models 182
control 4–5
creativity 26, 27
credibility
interpersonal judgments 91–3
of sources in persuasion 82–4, 92
criminal activity 134–5
critical thinking 107
crowd 21–2
crowdfunding 146, 148
cues-filtered-out 80–1
cyber attacks 134–5
cyber-bullying 66, 135–6
cyber stalking 132
data collection, see web-based data collection
dating sites 73–5, 210–13
decentralization 128
decision making 99–119
anonymity 106–7
Bayes’ theorem 100
classical models of 99–105
critical thinking 107
diversity 114–15
groupthink 104, 209
heuristics 101–3, 109–10
Internet 105–10
multiattribute utility 100–1
process gain 103
process loss 103–4
prospect theory 101
stepladder technique 104, 106
technology-fit 114
virtual teams 110–14
deindividuation 49–50, 53, 134
digital divide 202–3
digital footprint 58
directive leadership 192
disability 5
disclosure 2
discrimination, see prejudice and discrimination
discussion groups 71
disinhibition 2, 66, 128–31
Diskin, Yuval 120–1
Dissolving Boundaries 235–6, 240
distinctive cues 91
diversity 114–15, 224
double minority effect 174
Drew, Lori 46, 136
dual-process models of persuasion 80–1
dystopian view 22
e-leadership 180
egoistic prosocial behavior 148
emergent leadership 192–3
empathy 232–4
encryption software 266
enduring trust 170
equalization hypothesis 223
equity theory 64–5, 66
ethical issues 34, 155–6
exchange theory 64, 66, 183
expectancy violation theory 51
extremists 130, 210
Facebook
friends 89, 175
impression formation 4, 90
intergroup contact 238–9
prejudice and discrimination 206–8
recruiting research participants 214
social inhibitions 9
underage users 3
“wall” contents 107–8
fault-line theory 223–4
Feeling Close from a Distance 237, 240
filter bubble 25
“fishing” 130, 131
flash mobs 176
fluency heuristic 102
foot-in-the-door strategy 86
Friedman, Thomas 21
gender differences
compensative use of Internet 10
leadership roles 195
personal ads 65
stalking 131, 132
gender switching 48
General Learning Model 124
Global Conflicts 230
goal-setting 104
Good Neighbors Blog 238, 241
great person approach 181–2
groups 165–79
black sheep effect 174
cohesiveness 104
congruity theory 174
decision making 103–4, 106–7, 114–15, 172
double minority effect 174
flash mobs 176
goal-setting 104
identification 151
impression formation 166–8
information processing 172–5
intergroup bias and conflict 221–2
lurking 31–2
management 172
membership 5–6
minority contract leniency model 174
motivations 32
newbies 31
norms 31
prosocial behaviour 32
protest groups 176
(p.277)
prototype 150
reader-to-leader framework 32
rules for virtual groups 170–2
social cognition 30–2
social influence 172–5
socioemotional communication 168–9
strong ties and weak ties 175
task-oriented communication 168
trust 104, 169–72
virtual communities 175–6
groupthink 104, 209
hacking 134–5
halo effect 3
hate groups 130, 210
heuristic–systematic model 81, 88
heuristics 101–3, 109–10, 258
hiatus heuristic 102
hidden profile paradigm 172–3
hierarchical status, persuasion 80
human–computer interaction 32–3
hyperpersonal communication 67–8, 225
hypertext transfer protocol secure (HTTPS) 265–6
ideal self 12
identity, online social space 24
identity concealment 47, 48, 132–3
identity manipulation 45–61
accountability 52
actor effects 53–4
behavioral consequences 49–50
computer-mediated contexts 48
continuum 57
deindividuation 49–50
expectancy violation 51
perceptual consequences 50–2, 55–7
self-perception 49
social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) 50
terminology 46–8
uncertainty reduction 51–2
identity misrepresentation 47, 54, 55–6
identity prediction 58
identity replacement 47–8, 54, 56–7
imitate-the-successful heuristic 103
Implicit Association Test (IAT) 213–14, 242–3
impression formation 28–30, 225
groups 166–8
persuasion and compliance 80
social networking sites 4, 90, 107–9
warranting principle 90–1, 108
impression management 4
information
groups 172–5
overload 34
social cognition 24, 25–7
Input–Process–Output model 110–14, 111
instructional manipulation checks (IMCs) 260
interactivity 33, 125–8
intergroup bias 221–2
intergroup conflict 221–2
intergroup contact 220–52
acquaintance potential 224–5
anxiety reduction 231–2
Catholics and Protestants in Ireland 235–6, 240
contact hypothesis 220, 222–5
cooperation towards superordinate goals 223–4
empathy through perspective-taking 232–4
equal status 223
Facebook 238–9
field studies in conflict regions 235–8, 239, 240–1
generalization 226–7
group versus personal salience 226–7
Israeli Jews and Arabs 236–7, 240
Israelis and Palestinians 237–8, 241
knowledge about outgroup 229–31
measurement issues 242–3
mediators of contact effects 226, 226, 228–34, 244
moderators of contact effects 226, 226–8, 243–4
self-disclosure 225
support of authorities 224
internet surveys, see web-based data collection
interpersonal factors
online credibility 91–3
virtual teams 113–14
intimacy 2
involvement, persuasion 88
Knowledge Networks 215, 263–4
Lambda MOO 45, 70
leader–member exchange (LMX) theory 183, 192
leadership 180–200
adaptive structuration theory 183–4
anonymity 189–90
behavioral approach 182
changes and challenges in virtual contexts 180–1
channel expansion theory 185–6
contingency models 182
directive 192
e-leadership 180
emergent 192–3
exchange theory 183
experimental studies 187–9
female leaders 195
field studies 186–7
great person approach 181–2
leader–member exchange (LMX) theory 183, 192
media richness theory 185–6, 191
participative 192
perception of 194–5
procedural justice 183
relational perspectives 183
situational contingency perspectives 182
social-cognitive approach 194
social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) 184–5
social identity theory 195
social influence 194
transactional 183
transformational 183, 189–92
Zaccaro’s model 184
learning environment
intergroup contact 230–1
social anxiety 15–16
(p.278) legitimacy 205–6
leisure 6–7, 33–4
less-is-more effect 102
list “owners” 151
loneliness 13
Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences (LISS) 263, 264
lurking 31–2, 152
marginalized groups 5–6
Mechanical Turk (MTurk) 215, 260–1
media richness theory 30, 185–6, 191
media synchronicity 30
mentoring 146, 153
middle is typical heuristic 258
minority contract leniency model 174
MMORPGs 72–3
MOOs 45, 69–70
moral disengagement 133, 135
motivation
aggression 125
group participation 32
prosocial behavior 148–9
MUDs 69–70
multiattribute utility 100–1
multitasking 36
narrative story-telling 233
negativity effect 108, 109
netification 25
newbies 31
norms 31
1/N rule 103
one-reason heuristics 102, 109–10
online chat 10–11, 70–1, 209–10
online dating sites 73–5, 210–13
open collaborative work projects 146
optimal distinctiveness theory 228
participative leadership 192
passwords 266
PeaceMaker 230, 233, 234
pedophilia 132–3
perception
identity manipulation 50–2, 55–7
of leaders 194–5
of online “others” 28–30
self-perception 27–8, 49, 93–4
of time and space 35–6
personality 1–20
addiction to Internet 14
blogging 11
fantasy world use 11–12
online chat 10–11
online user preferences 7–8
real me 12–14
Rogerian 12
social inhibitions 8–14
Wikipedia membership 10
perspective-taking 232–4
persuasion and compliance 79–98
additivity hypothesis 88
aggregated feedback systems 89, 90
anonymity 91
cue potency 90–1
cues-filtered-out 80–1
dual-process models 80–1
foot-in-the-door strategy 86
heuristic–systematic model 81, 88
hierarchical status 80
interpersonal credibility 91–3
involvement 88
mediated messages 81–2
reputation systems 83, 89
self-disclosure 89–90
self-influence 93–4
social information processing (SIP) theory 84–5
sociotechnical influence model 85–8
source credibility 82–4, 92
system-generated cues 89, 90
physical appearance 3–4
physical limitations 5
poor get richer theory 8–9
prejudice and discrimination 201–19
anonymity 202, 203–4, 215–16
dating sites 210–13
legitimacy 205–6
perceived privacy 204–5
permanency 206
Project Implicit 213–14
social networking sites 204, 206–10, 214
privacy
aggression 128–9
prejudice and discrimination 204–5
social cognition 34–5
procedural justice 183
process gain 103
process loss 103–4
production blocking 112
progress bars 256–7
Project Guttenberg 153
Project Implicit 213–14
prosocial behavior 32, 143–164
altruistic 148
attribution 147
bystander help 144, 147
citizen science projects 146, 154
community development projects 146
contexts 145–6, 155
crowdfunding 146, 148
definition 143
demographics 154
egoistic 148
ethical issues 155–6
group identification 151
group prototype 150
individual attributes 154–5
individual benefits of participation 152–3
individual differences 154
initial decision to volunteer 147–8
interaction processes 147–51
list “owners” 151
(p.279)
lurking 152
mentoring 146, 153
model of volunteerism 145, 145
motivation 148–9
offline 144–5
open collaborative work projects 146
person attributes 147–51
quality of help 154–5
service projects 146
social benefits 153–4
social components 145
social contexts 144
social identity theory 150–1
social learning theory 149–50
social pressure 148
social recognition 149–50
support group discussion forums 145–6
technical components 145
technological evolution 156
transaction costs 146–7
transparency 147
value of 152–4
visible status characteristics 147
prospect theory 101
protest groups 176
Proteus Effect 49, 234
psychological limitation 5
racism 130
rape in cyberspace 45, 70
reader-to-leader framework 32
real me 12–14, 68, 71–2
real self 68
recognition heuristics 102, 110
reinvention 27
relevant cues 91
representation 27
reputation systems 83, 89
rich communication technologies 111
rich get richer theory 8–9
role-play 233
romantic relationship 62–78
BAR theory 68–9
bulletin board systems 69
chat rooms 70–1
control 5
dating sites 73–5, 210–13
discussion groups 71
disinhibition effect 66
equity theory 64–5, 66
exchange theory 64, 66
history of offline relationships 62–3
hyperpersonal communication 67–8
MMORPGs 72–3
MOOs 69–70
MUDs 69–70
real me 68, 71–2
social evolutionary theory 64, 65
social information processing (SIP) theory 67
social networking sites 73
social penetration theory 64, 65–6
social presence theory 66–7
Usenet newsgroups 71
rules, virtual groups 170–2
satisficing 259–60
Second Life 4, 11–12, 73, 230–1, 234
self-categorization theory 150, 221
self-concept 12, 27–8
self-disclosure 89–90, 225
self-esteem 2, 6
self-influence 93–4
self-monitoring 133
self-perception 27–8, 49, 93–4
self-presentation 28, 29, 74–5
service projects 146
situational contingency 182
sociability 32
social anxiety 13, 15–16
social categorization theory 221
social cognition 21–44
brain changes 25–6
definition 23–4
dynamic construct 25
experimenting with 24
of groups 30–2
human–computer interaction 32–3
importance of netification 24–7
information 24, 25–7
leadership 194
perception of others 28–30
private/public boundary 34–5
research challenges 36–7
self-perception 27–8
self-presentation 28, 29
social space 24
time and space perception 35–6
work/leisure boundary 33–4
social evolutionary theory 64, 65
social heuristics 103, 110
social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) 50, 166–7, 184–5, 227–8
social identity theory
leadership 195
prosocial behavior 150–1
social influence
groups 172–5
leadership 194
social information processing (SIP) theory 30, 67, 84–5, 167–8, 225
social inhibitions 8–15
Social Intelligence 207
social learning theory 124–8, 149–50
social loafing 103
social networking sites
anonymity 3
impression formation 4, 90, 107–9
prejudice and discrimination 204, 206–10, 214
privacy settings 35
romantic relationships 73
strong and weak ties 175
work/leisure boundary 34
(p.280) social penetration theory 64, 65–6
social presence theory 66–7
social space 24
social status 113, 223
social support 129–31
socialization 31
socioemotional communication 168–9
sociotechnical influence model 85–8
source credibility 82–4, 92
space perception 35–6
stalking 131–2
steganography 35
stepladder technique 104, 106
stereotyping 221–2
stigmatized groups 5–6
story-telling 233
strong ties 175
structuration theory 183–4
suicide sites 130–1
support group 145–6
swift trust 169–70
system-generated cues 89, 90
take-the-first heuristic 102
tally heuristic 102–3
task-oriented communication 168
technology-fit 114
terrorism 120–2, 126
time perception 35–6
Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS) program 264
tit-for-tat heuristic 103
toxic disinhibition 66
trade-off heuristics 102–3, 109
training 111–12, 231
transactional leadership 183
transformational leadership 183, 189–92
true self 12, 13
trust
enduring 170
groups 104, 169–72
swift 169–70
virtual teams 113
Twitter 156, 208–9
uncertainty reduction theory 51–2
usability 32
Usenet newsgroups 71
utopian view 22
video game violence 124, 125–8
virtual communities 175–6
Virtual Cultural Awareness Trainer 231
viruses 134–5
warranting principle 90–1, 108
wasps, identity misrepresentation 55–6
weak ties 175
Web 2.0 applications 21, 25
web-based data collection 253–70
best practices 255–60
data security 265–6
data storage 266
data transfer 265–6
feedback 265
incentives 264–5
instructional manipulation checks (IMCs) 260
lottery incentive 264–5
multi-item versus single-item pages 256
nonprobability samples 261–3
novel research 253, 254
open-ended items 258–9
overall look and feel of study 255
passwords 266
phenomenological studies 253–4
populating the study 260–5
probability samples 263–4
progress bars 256–7
response formats 257–8, 257
response option spacing, labeling and alignment 258
satisficing 259–60
text boxes 259
translational research 253
visual elements 255–6
web page defacement 135
Wikipedia 10, 148, 150, 153, 209–10
work, social cognition 33–4
World of Warcraft 49
worms 135
YouTube 209