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The Gendered Effects of Electoral InstitutionsPolitical Engagement and Participation$

Miki Caul Kittilson and Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199608607

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608607.001.0001

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(p.146) Appendix C: Regression Models for Chapter 5

(p.146) Appendix C: Regression Models for Chapter 5

Source:
The Gendered Effects of Electoral Institutions
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

This appendix presents the multiple regression results for the New Zealand and Russia analyses in Chapter 5. All analyses for New Zealand use data from the New Zealand Election Studies. All analyses for Russia use data from the New Russia Barometer.

Table C.1. Political Interest in New Zealand

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

2008

Female

−0.530**

−0.399**

−0.494**

−0.369**

−0.124**

(0.114)

(0.095)

(0.106)

(0.062)

0.288**

0.628**

(0.044)

(0.073)

(0.093)

Age

0.030**

0.030**

0.043**

0.043**

0.043**

0.037**

0.026**

(0.004)

(0.003)

(0.004)

(0.002)

(0.003)

(0.004)

(0.003)

Education

0.090**

0.147**

0.339**

0.242**

0.193**

0.233**

0.156**

(0.024)

(0.022)

(0.037)

(0.028)

(0.023)

(0.028)

(0.020)

Married

−0.042

0.108

−0.072

−0.035**

−0.036

−0.040*

−0.097**

(0.029)

(0.105)

(0.045)

(0.010)

(0.031)

(0.015)

(0.035)

Church Attendance

−0.100*

−0.016

−0.001**

0.046*

0.035

0.106**

0.140**

(0.044)

(0.034)

(0.000)

(0.018)

(0.021)

(0.029)

(0.027)

Maori

−0.150

0.238

0.105

0.415**

0.125

(0.231)

(0.215)

(0.200)

(0.141)

(0.105)

Pacific Islander

−0.486

−0.308

−0.347

−0.132

−0.096

(0.427)

(0.373)

(0.459)

(0.218)

(0.224)

N

1732

2101

2152

5600

4286

3409

2858

Notes: Table entries represent logit coefficients with standard errors in parentheses.

* p 〈 0.05,

** p 〈 0.01.

Table C.2. Discussing Politics in New Zealand

1993

1996

1999

2005

2008

Female

0.146

−0.107

−0.124

−0.040

0.008

(0.145)

(0.243)

(0.098)

(0.101)

(0.046)

Age

−0.015**

−0.010

−0.006

−0.005

−0.014**

(0.004)

(0.008)

(0.003)

(0.150)

(0.003)

Education

0.233**

0.318**

0.265**

0.201**

0.156**

(0.038)

(0.087)

(0.044)

(0.031)

(0.020)

Married

0.072

−0.152

−0.055**

−0.048*

−0.181**

(0.164)

(0.110)

(0.017)

(0.017)

(0.036)

Church Attendance

0.038

−0.050

−0.037

0.080*

0.069*

(0.052)

(0.066)

(0.027)

(0.032)

(0.026)

Maori

0.003

−0.070

0.084

−0.116

(0.392)

(0.528)

(0.153)

(0.106)

Pacific Islander

−1.247*

−2.246**

−1.038**

−0.463*

(0.453)

(0.630)

(0.264)

(0.220)

N

1912

1605

4913

3403

2857

Notes: Table entries represent logit coefficients with standard errors in parentheses.

* p 〈 0.05,

** p 〈 0.01.

(p.147)

Table C.3. Contributed Money to a Campaign in New Zealand

1993

1996

2005

2008

Female

−0.435*

−0.036

−0.082

−0.065

(0.196)

(0.193)

(0.209)

(0.117)

Age

0.036**

0.047**

0.060**

0.036**

(0.006)

(0.007)

(0.008)

(0.007)

Education

0.037

0.237**

0.175**

0.015

(0.043)

(0.060)

(0.058)

(0.045)

Married

−0.052

0.011

−0.045

0.050

(0.221)

(0.097)

(0.051)

(0.106)

Church Attendance

−0.234**

0.120*

0.093

0.117*

(0.062)

(0.050)

(0.054)

(0.059)

Maori

0.439

0.017

1.382**

0.409

(0.456)

(0.555)

(0.268)

(0.289)

Pacific Islander

−1.83

−1.293

−0.280

(1.83)

(1.228)

(0.729)

N

1872

1605

3269

2638

Notes: Table entries represent logit coefficients with standard errors in parentheses.

* p 〈 0.05,

** p 〈 0.01.

Table C.4. Attended Political Meetings in New Zealand

1993

1996

1999

2008

Female

−0.106

−0.025

0.125

0.020

(0.173)

(0.146)

(0.117)

(0.100)

Age

0.024**

0.035**

0.028**

0.031**

(0.005)

(0.005)

(0.004)

(0.007)

Education

0.111*

0.206**

0.319**

0.072

(0.039)

(0.046)

(0.051)

(0.045)

Married

0.144

0.181*

0.013

0.258*

(0.189)

(0.066)

(0.023)

(0.100)

Church Attendance

−0.178**

0.057

0.120**

0.225**

(0.056)

(0.040)

(0.030)

(0.058)

Maori

0.981**

0.596

0.546

(0.342)

(0.325)

(0.286)

Pacific Islander

−0.575

−19.130

1.151*

(1.033)

(0.411)

N

1870

1605

4913

2641

Notes: Table entries represent logit coefficients with standard errors in parentheses.

* p 〈 0.05,

** p 〈 0.01.

(p.148)

Table C.5. Working for a Political Party in New Zealand

1993

1999

Female

−0.462

−0.137

(0.300)

(0.176)

Age

0.013

0.022**

(0.009)

(0.006)

Education

0.077

0.318**

(0.068)

(0.078)

Married

0.456

0.008

(0.307)

(0.033)

Church Attendance

−0.057

0.086

(0.103)

(0.046)

Maori

1.299*

(0.484)

Pacific Islander

1.383

(0.780)

N

1871

4913

Notes: Table entries represent logit coefficients with standard errors in parentheses.

* p 〈 0.05,

** p 〈 0.01.

Table C.6. Political Interest in Russia

2005

2007

2008

2009

Female

−0.65***

−0.72***

−0.40***

−0.46***

(0.10)

(0.12)

(0.12)

(0.12)

Age

0.02***

0.02***

0.02***

0.02***

(0.00)

(0.00)

(0.00)

(0.00)

Education

0.17***

0.15***

0.13***

0.09***

(0.02)

(0.03)

(0.03)

(0.03)

Married

0.40***

0.11

0.24**

−0.03

(0.10)

(0.12)

(0.12)

(0.20)

Employed

−0.16

−0.13

0.21

0.05

(0.11)

(0.14)

(0.13)

(0.13)

Democraticness

0.03

−0.02

−0.01

0.02

(0.02)

(0.03)

(0.03)

(0.03)

Constant

−1.70***

−1.50***

−1.81***

−1.53***

(0.31)

(0.35)

(0.34)

(0.35)

Chi-square

127.06***

78.16***

62.10***

52.84***

N

1943

1338

1336

1326

Pseudo R 2

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.03

Notes: Logit estimates with robust standard errors in parentheses.

* p 〈 0.10,

** p 〈 0.05,

*** p 〈 0.01.

(p.149)

Table C.7. Political Knowledge and Voting in Russia

Political Knowledge

Voting

2004

2009

2004

2008

Female

−0.39***

−0.16

0.35***

0.26*

(0.12)

(0.16)

(0.12)

(0.14)

Age

0.02***

0.03***

0.03***

0.03***

(0.00)

(0.01)

(0.00)

(0.00)

Education

0.18***

0.13***

0.09***

0.04

(0.03)

(0.03)

(0.03)

(0.03)

Married

0.35***

−0.13

0.35***

0.34**

(0.11)

(0.28)

(0.12)

(0.14)

Employed

0.07

0.43***

0.26*

0.08

(0.12)

(0.17)

(0.13)

(0.16)

Democraticness

0.00

−0.03

0.02

0.08**

(0.03)

(0.04)

(0.03)

(0.04)

Constant

−1.80***

−0.12

−1.55***

−1.25***

(0.32)

(0.43)

(0.35)

(0.38)

Chi-square

83.08***

41.19***

79.16***

80.49***

N

1373

1342

1373

1317

Pseudo R 2

0.05

0.03

0.05

0.06

Notes: Logit estimates with robust standard errors in parentheses.

* p 〈 0.10,

** p 〈 0.05,

*** p 〈 0.01.