This chapter begins to focus on the motivations for dis-analogy with an examination of discrepancies in categorization between phonology and syntax. A fundamental discrepancy is the absence of a distinction in functional vs. lexical category. The former are crucial to the articulation of the more complex structures required by syntax in the representation of cognitive scenes and their context of speech. Kabardian is discussed as a language not just without phonological transitivity but also without a contrastive category of vowel. This is not paralleled in syntax, where predicators are central to clause structure, but there are languages without adjectives and (possibly) a lexical distinction between noun and verb. This discrepancy reflects the different orientations of the two planes towards the lexicon.
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