Syntax and non‐linearity
Various analogies involving properties that have a scope that is extrasegmental (in phonology) or clausal (in syntax) are presented. Vowel harmony has an analogy in sequence of tenses, as does umlaut in agreement. Phonological segments and features that do not undergo the normal rules of placement are analogous to words and syntactic features, respectively, that do not show the usual properties of word order and manifestation in word structure. Underspecification and polysystemicity, and contrast, familiar from phonology, are illustrated for syntactic features in relation to different systems of aspect. Historical grammaticalization, unsurprisingly also found in both planes, is illustrated. These and other illustrations involve more and less detailed analyses of phenomena from a range of languages.
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