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The Psychology of Music in Multimedia$
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Siu-Lan Tan, Annabel J. Cohen, Scott D. Lipscomb, and Roger A. Kendall

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199608157

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608157.001.0001

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Music and memory in film and other multimedia: The Casablanca effect

Music and memory in film and other multimedia: The Casablanca effect

(p.235) Chapter 11 Music and memory in film and other multimedia: The Casablanca effect
The Psychology of Music in Multimedia

Berthold Hoeckner

Howard C. Nusbaum

Oxford University Press

This chapter explores the artistic representation and empirical study of audiovisual memory in cinema, with a specific focus on memory induced by music. The first section reviews how flashbacks have been used by directors to structure filmic narration and to visualize the recollection of characters. The second section examines how different types of visual memory are cued by music in movies. In cinematic representations of episodic memory, for example, characters may associate music with past events (as in the film Casablanca). Based on musical schemas formed by cultural conventions, musical underscoring relies on semantic and implicit memory to help audiences in the perception and understanding of screen content. The third section surveys empirical studies of musical memory effects in film and multimedia, showing how affective priming through musical underscoring affects the remembrance of film events, product recall in advertisement, the comprehension of the narrative, or character perception.

Keywords:   film, film score, film music, aesthetics, flashback, musical cues, episodic memory, semantic memory, Hugo Münsterberg

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