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War by ContractHuman Rights, Humanitarian Law, and Private Contractors$
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Francesco Francioni and Natalino Ronzitti

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199604555

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604555.001.0001

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Women and Private Military and Security Companies

Women and Private Military and Security Companies

Chapter:
(p.280) 14 Women and Private Military and Security Companies
Source:
War by Contract
Author(s):

Ana Filipa Vrdoljak

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604555.003.0015

Lack of clarity about the application of international law norms and inadequacies of existing regulatory regimes covering private military and security companies (PMSCs) have reinforced concerns about transparency and accountability in respect of gender-related violence, harassment, and discrimination. This chapter focuses on the main issues and legal concerns raised by the impact of the privatisation of war on women, both as PMSC employees and civilians. Part I highlights how armed conflict, civil unrest, occupation, and transition have a detrimental effect upon the lives of women with particular reference to safety, displacement, and health and economic disadvantage. Part II provides a summary of existing international humanitarian law and human rights provisions relating to women. Part III examines recent developments within the United Nations, the work of the ICRC, and international criminal law jurisprudence shaping these legal norms. Part IV considers the key recommendations of recent international and international initiatives covering PMSCs and women.

Keywords:   women, gender, sexual assault, forced prostitution, human trafficking, sexual harassment, discrimination, international law, international humanitarian law, human rights

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