The Twentieth Century: God's Absolute Innocence
The fifth chapter argues that twentieth-century efforts to distance Christianity from earlier predestinarian doctrine run into biblical and conceptual difficulties. Bulgakov rejects predestination and instead develops a sophiological theology of the necessary salvation of every rational creature. Denying that Satan (or any demon) is a personal being, Barth proposes that every human being is predestined or elected in Christ Jesus. Maritain holds that created freedom can overturn God's “antecedent” will by a non-active “nihilation” of the rule of reason; God's “consequent” will for predestination follows upon human freedom. Balthasar considers the doctrine of predestination a false path, and he instead develops a Trinitarian dramatics to deal with the issues previously understood in terms of predestination.
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