Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Europe of ElitesA Study into the Europeanness of Europe's Political and Economic Elites$

Heinrich Best, György Lengyel, and Luca Verzichelli

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199602315

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602315.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy).date: 22 October 2017

(p.269) References

(p.269) References

Source:
The Europe of Elites
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Aberbach, J. D., Putnam R. D., and Rockman, B. A. (1981) Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

Achen, C. H. (1977) ‘Measuring Representation: Perils of the Correlation Coefficient’. American Journal of Political Science 21, 805–15.

——  (1978) ‘Measuring Representation’. American Journal of Political Science 22, 475–510.

Adams, J. F., Merrill, S., and Grofman, B. (2005) A Unified Theory of Party Competition: A Cross-National Analysis Integrating Spatial and Behavioral Factors (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

AIAS (2009) ICTWSS: Database on Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts in 34 countries between 1960 and 2007 (Version 2) (Amsterdam: Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies). http://www.uva-aias.net/208 (accessed 6 November 2009).

Alesina, A., Angeloni I., and Schuknecht L. (2001) ‘What Does the European Union Do?’. Harvard Institute of Economic Research Discussion Paper, N. 1935.

Almond, G. A. and Powell, B.G. (1978) Comparative Politics. System, Process and Policy (Boston: Little Brown & Co).

Anderson, C. J., and Kaltenhaler, K. C. (1996) ‘The Dynamics of Public Opinion toward European Integration, 1973–93’. European Journal of International Relations, 2(2), 175–99.

Andeweg, R. B. and Thomassen, J. A. (2005) ‘Modes of Political Representation’. Legislative Studies Quarterly 30, 507–28.

Aspinwall, M. (2002) ‘Preferring Europe Ideology and National preferences on European Integration’. European Union Politics 3 (1), 81–111.

Aurel, K. and Benz, A. (2005) ‘The Politics of Adaptation: The Europeanisation of National Parliamentary Systems’. Journal of Legislative Studies 11, 372–93.

Barnes, S. H. (1977) Representation in Italy. Institutionalized Tradition and Electoral Choice. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).

Bartolini, S. (2005) Restructuring Europe: Centre Formation, System Building and Political Structuring between the Nation-state and the European Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Bellah, R. (1957) Tokugawa Religion (Boston: Beacon Press).

Bellamy, R., Castiglione, D., and Shaw, J. (eds) (2005) Making European Citizens. Civic Inclusion in a Transnational context (London: Palgrave Macmillan).

Belot C. (2002) ‘Les logiques sociologiques de soutien au processus d'intégration européenne: éléments d'interprétation’. Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 9(1), 11–29.

(p.270) Benhabib, S. (2002) The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Benoit, K. and Laver, M. (2006) Party Policy in Modern Democracies (London: Routledge).

Best, H. (2007) ‘New Challenges, New Elites? Changes in the Recruitment and Career Patterns of European Representative Elites’. Comparative Sociology, 6(1–2), 85–113.

——  (2008) ‘The Europe of Elites: Determinants of Europeaness of European Political and Economic Elites’. Conference Paper, American Political Science Association, 2008 Annual Meeting, pp.1–26.

——  (2009) ‘History Matters: Dimensions and Determinants of National Identities among European Populations and Elites’. Europe-Asia Studies 61(6), 921–41.

——  (2011) The Elite–Population Gap in the Formation of Political Identities: A Cross-Cultural Investigation. Europe-Asia Studies, 63(6): 95–1010.

——  and Cotta, M. (eds) (2000) Parliamentary Representatives in Europe 1848–2000. Legislative Recruitment and Careers in Eleven European Countries (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

——  —— and Verzichelli, L. (2006) ‘The Circulation and Reproduction of European Political Elites: The Quest of Convergence’, in J. From and N. Sitter (eds), Europe’s Nascent State? Public Policy in the European Union. Essays in Honour of Kjell Eliassen (Oslo: Gyldendal), pp. 81–115.

——  Matonytė, I. and Morkevičius, V. (2009) ‘Elitų Europa: ES valstybių narių politinio ir ekonominio elito europietiškumo mastai’. Politologija 2, 12–46.

Biland E., Eideliman, J. S., and Gojard S. (2008) ‘Ceteris (non) paribus? Combiner régression logistique et analyse des données pour étudier les arrangements pratiques des personnes handicapées ou dépendantes’. Genèses 73, 37–56.

Binnema, H. and Crum, B. (2007) ‘Resistance to Europe as a carrier of mass-elite incongruence. The case of the Netherlands’, in J. Lacroix and R. Coman (eds), Les résistances à l’Europe Cultures nationales, idéologies et stratégies d’acteurs (Bruxelles: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles), pp. 113–28.

Bitsch, M. T, Loth, W., and Barthel, C. (eds) (2007) Cultures politiques, opinions publiques et intégration européenne (Bruxelles: Emile Bruylant).

Black, D. (1948) ‘On the Rationale of Group Decision Making’. Journal of Political Economy 56, 23–34.

Blais, A. and Bodet, A. (2006) ‘Does Proportional Representation Foster Closer Congruence Between Citizens and Policymakers?’ Comparative Political Studies 39, 1243–62.

Börzel, T. A. (2005) ‘Mind the gap! European integration between level and scope’. Journal of European Public Policy 12(2), 217–36.

Bourricaud, F. (1981) The Sociology of Talcott Parsons (Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press).

Braudel, F. (1966) La Mediterranee et le monde mediterraneen a l’epoque de Philippe II (Paris: Armand Colin).

Brinegar, A. P. and Jolly, S. K. (2005) ‘Location, Location, Location. National Contextual Factors and Public Support for European Integration’. European Union Politics 6(2), 155–80.

(p.271) ——  —— and Kitschelt, H. (2004) ‘Varieties of Capitalism and Political Divides over European Integration’, in G. Marks and M. Steenbergen (eds), European Integration and Political Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press), pp. 62–89.

Bruneau, T. C. et al. (2001) ‘Democracy, Southern European Style’, in P.N. Diamandouros and R. Gunther (eds), Parties, Politics and Democracy in the New Southern Europe (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press), pp. 16–82.

Bruter, M. (2005) Citizens of Europe? The Emergence of a Mass European Identity (Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

Budge, I. et al. (2001) Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 19451998 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

——  and Laver, M. (1992) ‘The Relationship Between Party and Coalition Policy in Europe: A Synthesis’, in M. Laver and I. Budge (eds), Party Policy and Government Coalitions (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press), pp. 409–30.

——  Robertson, D., and Hearl, D. (eds) (1987) Ideology, Strategy and Party Change: Spatial Analyses of Post-War Election Programmes in 19 Democracies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Burton, M. G. and Higley, J. (1987) ‘Elite Settlements’. American Sociological Review 52, 295–307.

Byrnes, T. A. and Katzenstein P. J. (eds) (2006) Religion in an Expanding Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Campbell, D. (1998) Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press).

Carey, S. (2002) ‘Undivided Loyalties. Is National Identity Obstacle to European Integration?’. European Union Politics 3(4), 388–413.

Carruba, C. (2001) ‘The Electorate Connection in European Union Politics’ Journal of Politics 63, 141–58.

Checkel, J. T. and Katzenstein, P. J. (eds) (2009) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Closa, C. (1998) ‘Supranational Citizenship and Democracy: Normative and Empirical Dimensions’, in M. La Torre (ed.), European Citizenship: an Institutionalist Challenge (The Hague; Kluwer), pp. 415–33.

Connolly, W. E. (1991) Identity|Difference: Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press).

Converse, P. E. and Pierce, R. (1986) Political Representation in France (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

Costa O. and Rozenberg O. (2008) ‘Parlementaires’, in C. Belot, P. Magnette, and S. Saurugger (eds), Science politique de l’Union européenne (Paris: Economica), pp. 249–83.

Cotta, M. (2007) ‘Domestic Elites in the Transformation of the European Polity’, in F. Engelstad and T. Gulbransen (eds), Comparative Studies of Social and Political Elites. Comparative Social Research, 23 (Amsterdam: Elsevier), pp. 137–70.

——  (2008) ‘A “Compound” Model of Citizenship? European Citizenship in the Eyes of National Elites’. Paper presented at the IntUne General Assembly, Lisbon 27–30 November.

——  and Best, H. (eds) (2007) Democratic Representation in Europe. Diversity, Change, and Convergence (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

(p.272) ——  and Isernia, P. (2009) ‘Citizenship in the European Polity: Questions and Explorations’, in C. Moury and L. de Sousa (eds), Institutional Challenges in Post-Constitutional Europe. Governing Change (Routledge: London), pp. 71–94.

Crum, B. and Fossum, J. E. (2009) ‘The Multilevel Parliamentary Field: A Framework for Theorizing Representative Democracy in the EU’. European Political Science Review 1(2), 249–70.

Dalton, R. J. (1985) ‘Political Parties and Political Representation’. Comparative Political Studies 18, 267–99.

——  (1996) Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, second edition (Chatham: Chatham House Publishers).

——  and Eichenberg R. C. (1998) ‘Citizen Support for policy Integration’, in W. Sandholtz and A. Stone Sweet (eds), European Integration and Supranational Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 250–82.

De Master, S. and Le Roy, M. K. (2000) ‘Xenophobia and the European Union’. Comparative Politics 32(4), 419–36.

De Vries, C. E. and Edwards, E. E. (2009) ‘Taking Europe to Its Extremes: Extremist Parties and Public Euroscepticism’. Party Politics 15(1), 5–28.

De Winter, D. G. (2003) ‘Personality and Political Behavior’, in D. O. Sears, L. Huddy, and R. Jervis (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 110–45.

Deflem, M. and Pampel, F. C. (1996) ‘The Myth of Postnational Identity: Popular Support for European Unification’. Social Forces 75(1), 119–43.

Dell’Olio, F. (2005) The Europeanization of Citizenship Between the Ideology of Nationality, Immigration and European Identity (Hants, England: Ashgate).

Deutsch, K. W. et al. (1957) Political Community and the North Atlantic Area: International Organisation in the Light of Historical Experience (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

——  (1966) Nationalism and Social Communication. An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).

Diez, T. (2005) ‘Constructing the Self and Changing Others: Reconsidering “Normative Power Europe” Millennium’. Journal of International Studies 33(3), 613–36.

Diez-Medrano J. (2003) Framing Europe Attitudes to European Integration in Germany, Spain, and the UK (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

——  and P. Guttiérrez (2001) ‘Nested Identities: National and European Identity in Spain’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 24, 753–78.

Docherty, D. (1996) Mr Smith goes to Ottawa, Life in the House of Commons (Vancouver: UBC Press).

Donskis, L. (2005) Loyalty, Dissent, and Betrayal: Modern Lithuania and East-Central European Moral Imagination (Amsterdam: Rodopi Editions B.V.).

Downs, A. (1957) An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York, NY: Harper and Row).

Eder, K. and Giesen, B. (eds) (2001) European Citizenship Between National Legacies and Post-National Projects (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Eichenberg, R. and Dalton, R. (1993) ‘Europeans and the European Community: The Dynamics of Public Support for European Integration’. International Organizations 47, 507–34.

(p.273) ——  —— (2007) ‘Post-Maastricht Blues: the Transformation of Citizen Support for European Integration, 1973–2004’. Acta Politica 8, 128–52.

Eriksen, E. O. and Fossum, J. E. (eds) (2000) Democracy in the European Union (London: Routledge).

——  Fossum, J. E. and Menéndez, A. J. (2004) Developing a Constitution for Europe, (Oxford: Routledge).

Esaiasson, P. and Holmberg, S. (1986) Representation from Above. Members of Parliament and Representative Democracy in Sweden (Aldershot: Avebury).

European Commission (2008) EU Budget 2007. Financial Report (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities).

Eymeri-Douzans, J. M. and Georgakakis, D. (2008) ‘Les hauts fonctionnaires de l’Union européenne’, in C. Belot, P. Magnette, and S. Saurugger (eds), Science politique de l’Union européenne (Paris: Economica), pp. 285–311.

Fabbrini, S. (2007) Compound Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Ferrera, M. (2005) The Boundaries of Welfare. European Integration and the New Spatial Politics of Social Protection (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Field, G. L., Higley, J., and Burton, M. G. (1990) ‘A New Elite Framework for Political Sociology’. Revue europeenne des sciences sociales 88, 149–82.

Fligstein, N. (2008) Euroclash. The EU, European Identity and the Future of Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Franklin, M. and Scarrow, S. (1999) ‘Making Europeans? The socializing power of the European. Parliament’, in R. S. Katz and B. Wessels (eds), The European Parliament, the National Parliaments, and European Integration (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 45–60.

——  and van der Eijk, C. (2004) ‘Potential for Contestation on European Matters at National Elections in Europe’, in G. Marks and M. Steenbergen (eds), European Integration and Political Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 32–50.

Fuchs, D., Roger, A., and Magni-Berton, R. (2009) ‘European Cleavages, Euroskepticism and support to EU. A Conceptual Discussion’ in D. Fuchs, A. Roger, and R. Magni-Berton, (eds), Euroskepticism. Images of Europe Among Mass Publics and Political Elites (Opladen: B. Budrich Publishers), pp. 9–34.

Fuss, D., Garcia-Albacete, G., and Rodriguez-Monter, M. (2004) ‘The Role of Language Skills and Foreign Country Experiences in the Development of European Identity’. Sociológia––Slovac Sociological Review 3, 273–92.

Gabel, M. (1998) ‘Public Support for European Integration: An Empirical Test of Five Theories’. Journal of Politics 60(2), 333–58.

——  and Anderson, C. (2002) ‘The Structure of Citizen Attitudes and the European Political Space’. Comparative Political Studies 35(8), 893–913.

——  and Hix, S. (2004) ‘Defining the EU Political Space: an Empirical Study of the European Election Manifestos, 1979–1999’, in G. Marks and M. Steenbergen (eds), European Integration and Political Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 93–119.

——  and Palmer, H. (1995) ‘Understanding Variation in Public Support for European Integration’. European Journal of Political Research 27, 3–19.

(p.274) ——  and Scheve, K. (2007) ‘Estimating the Effect of Elite Communications on Public Opinion Using Instrumental Variables’. American Journal of Political Science 51(4), 1013–28.

——  and Whitten, G. D. (1997) ‘Economic Conditions, Economic perceptions, and Public Support for European Integration’. Political Behavior 19(1), 81–96.

Galbraith, J. K. (1967) The New Industrial State (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company).

Gamson, W. A. (1961) ‘A Theory of Coalition’. American Sociological Review 26, 373–82.

Gautier, O. (2007) ‘L’Autre Europe du Mouvement pour la France (MPF) et l’européanisation du souverainisme’, in O. Baisnée and R. Pasquier (eds), L’Europe telle qu’elle se fait. Européanisation et sociétés politiques nationales (Paris: CNRS Editions), pp. 123–43.

Georgakakis D. and De Lassalle, M. (2007a) ‘L’Européanisation des carrières politico-administratives. Une analyse comparée des trajectoires professionnelles des directeurs généraux de la Commission’, in O. Baisnée and R. Pasquier (eds), L’Europe telle qu’elle se fait. Européanisation et sociétés politiques nationales (Paris: CNRS Editions), pp. 55–77.

——  —— (2007b) ‘Genèse et structure d’un capital institutionnel européen. Les très hauts fonctionnaires de la Commission Européenne’. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 166–7, pp. 38–53.

Giddens, A. and Hutton, W. (2000) ‘In Conversation’, in A. Giddens and W. Hutton (eds), Global Capitalism (New York: The New Press), pp. 1–51.

Golder, M. and Stramski, J. (2010) ‘Ideological Congruence and Electoral Institutions’. American Journal of Political Science 54, 90–106.

Grabbe, H. and Hughes, K. (1998) ‘Central and East European Views on EU Enlargement: Political Debates and Public Opinion’, in K. Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe (London: UCL), pp. 185–202.

Granberg, D. and Holmberg, S. (1996) ‘Attitude Constraint and Stability Among Elite and Mass in Sweden’. European Journal for Political Research 29, 59–72.

Graziano P. and Vink, M. (2007) Europeanization. A New Research Agenda (London: Palgrave).

Haas, E. B. (1958) The Uniting of Europe (Stanford: Stanford University Press).

——  (1964) Beyond the Nation-State: Functionalism and International Organization (Stanford: Stanford University Press).

Haba, K. (2007) ‘New World Orders and Neo-Nationalism of the EU after the Iraq War’. 〈http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p181468_index.html〉 (accessed 24 October 2011).

Haller, M. (2003) ‘National Identity and National Pride in Europe. A Study in 9 Member States of the EU’, in G. Nevola (ed.) Una patria per gli italiani: La questione nazionale oggi (Roma: Carocci), pp. 51–80.

——  (2008) European Integration as an Elite Process. The Failure of a Dream? (New York: Routledge).

Harmsen R. (2007) ‘Is British Euroskepticism Still Unique? National Exceptionalism in Comparative Perspective’, in J. Lacroix and R. Coman (eds), Les résistances à l’Europe Cultures nationales, idéologies et stratégies d’acteurs (Bruxelles: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles), pp. 69–92.

(p.275) Hartmann, M. (2010) ‘Elites and Power Structure’, in S. Immerfall and G. Therborn (eds), Handbook of European Societies. Social Transformation in the 21st Century (New York: Springer), pp. 291–323.

Herrmann, R., Risse T., and Brewer, M. (eds) (2004) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield).

Higley, J. and Burton, M. G. (2006) Elite Foundations of Liberal Democracy (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield).

——  and Lengyel, G. (eds) (2000) Elites after State Socialism. Theories and Analysis. (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield).

Hix S. (1999) ‘Dimensions and Alignments in European Union Politics: Cognitive Constraints and Partisan Responses’. European Journal of Political Research 35(1), 69–106.

——  (2002) ‘Parties at the European Level’, in P. Webb, D. Farrel, and I. Holliday (eds), Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 280–309.

——  (2008a) ‘Towards a Partisan Theory of EU Politics’. Journal of European Public Policy 15, 1254–65.

——  (2008b) What’s Wrong with the European Union and How to Fix It (Cambridge: Polity Press).

——  et al. (2007) Democratic Politics in the European Parliament (New York: Cambridge University Press).

——  and Lord, C. (1997) Political parties in the European Union (NewYork: St. Martin’s).

——  and Noury, A. (2006) After Enlargement: Voting Behaviour in the Sixth European Parliament. Paper presented at the Federal Trust Conference on The European Parliament and the European Political Space, London.

Hoffmann, S. (1966) ‘Obstinate or Obsolete: The Fate of the Nation State and the Case of Western Europe’. Daedalus 95, 892–908.

Holmberg, S. (1989) ‘Political Representation in Sweden’. Scandinavian Political Studies 12, 1–36.

——  (1997) ‘Dynamic Opinion Representation’. Scandinavian Political Studies 12, 265–83.

——  (1999) ‘Wishful Thinking among European Parliamentarians’, in H. Schmitt and J. Thomassen (eds), Political Representation and Legitimacy in The European Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 235–53.

——  (2000) ‘Issue Agreement’, in P. Esaiasson and K. Heidar (eds), Beyond Westminster and Congress: The Nordic Experience (Columbus: Ohio State University Press), pp. 155–80.

Hooghe, L. (2001) The European Commission and the Integration of Europe. Images of Governance. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

——  (2003) ‘Europe Divided? Elites vs. Public Opinion on European Integration’. European Union Politics 4(3), 281–304.

——  (2007) ‘What Drives Euroskepticism? Party-Public Cueing, Ideology and Strategic Opportunity’. European Union Politics 8, 5–12.

——  and Marks, G. (1999) ‘The Making of a Polity: The Struggle over European Integration’, in H. Kitschelt et al. (eds), Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 70–97.

(p.276) ——  —— (2004) ‘Does Identity or Economic rationality Drive Public Opinion on European Integration’. Political Science & Politics 37, 415–20.

——  —— (2005) ‘Calculation, Community and Cues. Public Opinion on European Integration’. European Union Politics 6(4), 419–43.

——  —— (2008) ‘A Postfunctionalist Theory of European Integration: From Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus’. British Journal of Political Science 1, 1–23.

——  —— and Wilson, C. J. (2002) ‘Does Left/Right Structure Party Positions On European Integration’. Comparative Political Studies 35(8), 965–89.

——  —— ——  (2004) ‘Does Left/Right Structure Party Positions on European Integration?’, in G. Marks and M. Steenbergen (eds), European Integration and Political Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 120–40.

Huber, J. D. and Powell, G. B. (1994) ‘Congruence Between Citizens and Policymakers in Two Visions of Liberal Democracy’. World Politics 46, 291–326.

Hughes, J., Sasse, G., and Gordon, C. (2002) ‘EU Enlargement and Power Asymmetries: Conditionality and the Commission’s Role in Regionalisation in Central and Eastern Europe’. ESRC ‘One Europe or Several?’ Programme, Working Paper 49.

Huntington, S. (1984) ‘Will More Countries Become Democratic?’. Political Science Quarterly 99(2), 193–218.

——  (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Free Press).

Immerfall, S., Boehnke, K., and Baier, D. (2010) ‘Identity’, in S. Immerfall and G. Therborn (eds), Handbook of European Societies. Social Transformation in the 21st Century (New York: Springer), pp. 325–53.

——  and Therborn, G. (eds) (2010) Handbook of European Societies. Social Transformation in the 21st Century (New York: Springer).

Inglehart, R. (1971) ‘Changing Value Priorities and European Integration’. Journal of Common Market Studies 10, 1–36.

——  and Rabier, J.-R. (1978) ‘Economic Uncertainty and European Solidarity: Public Opinion Trends’. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 440, 66–97.

Inkeles, A. (1968) Social Changes in Soviet Russia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

Jenny, M., Pollak, J., and Slominski, P. (2006) ‘Political Elites and the Future of Europe: The Views of MPs and MEPs’, in S. Puntscher-Riekmann and W. Wessels (eds), The Making of a European Constitution: Dynamics and Limits of the Convention Experience (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften), pp. 200–15.

Jensen, Carsten Stroby (2003) ‘Neo-Functionalism’, in M. Cini (ed.), European Union Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 121–32.

Kaeding, M. (2004) ‘Rapporteurship Allocation in the European Parliament. Information or Distribution?’, European Union Politics 5(3), 353–37.

Kagan, R. (2002) ‘Power and Weakness. Why the United States and Europe See the WorldDifferently’, Policy Review 113, 3–28.

Kam, C. J. (2009). Party Discipline and Parliamentary Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.277) Katz, R. and Mair P. (1994) How Parties Organize. Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies (London: Sage).

——  (2002) The Ascendancy of the Party in Public Office: Party Organizational Change in Twentieth-Century Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Kenig, O. (2009) ‘Democratization of Party Leadership Selection: Do Wider Selectorates Produce more Competitive Contests?’. Electoral Studies 28(2), 240–7.

Kim, H. and Fording, R. C. (1998) ‘Voter ideology in Western Democracies, 1946–1989’. European Journal of Political Research 33, 73–97.

Kitschelt, H. (2000) ‘Linkages between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities’. Comparative Political Studies 33, 845–79.

——  Mansfeldova, Z., Markowski, R., and Toka, G. (1999) Post-Communist Party Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Cooperation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Krehbiel, K. (1993) ‘Where’s the Party?’. British Journal of Political Science 23, 235–66.

——  (1998) Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking, (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).

Kritzinger, S. (2003) ‘The Influence of the Nation-State on Individual Support for the European Union’. European Union Politics 4(2), 219–41.

——  (2005) ‘European Identity Building from the Perspective of Efficiency’. Comparative European Politics 3, 50–75.

Ladrech R. (1994) ‘Europeanization of Domestic Politics and Institutions: The Case of France’. Journal of Common Market Studies 32(1), 69–88.

——  (2000) Social Democracy and the Challenge of European Union (London: Lynne Rienner Publisher).

Lane, D., Lengyel, G., and Tholen, J. (eds) (2007) Restructuring of the Economic Elites after State Socialism. Recruitment, Institutions and Attitudes (Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag).

Laver, M., Benoit, K., and Garry, J. (2003) ‘Extracting Policy Positions from Political Texts Using Words as Data’. American Political Science Review 97, 311–31.

Lazic, M. and Vuletic, V. (2009) ‘The Nation State and the EU in the Perceptions of Political and Economic Elites: The Case of Serbia in Comparative Perspective’. Europe-Asia Studies 61(6), 987–1001.

Lengyel, G. and Göncz, B. (2009) ‘Elites’ Pragmatic and Symbolic Views about European Integration’. Europe-Asia Studies 61(6), 1059–77.

Lewis, P. (2008) ‘Changes in the Party Politics of the New EU Member States in Central Europe: Patterns of Europeanization and Democratization’. Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans 10(2), 151–65.

Lindberg, L. N. and Scheingold, S. A. (1970) Regional Integration: Theory and Research (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

Lipset, S. M. (1960) Political Man (New York: Doubleday & Company).

Llamazares, I. and Gramacho, W. (2007) ‘Eurosceptics Among Euroenthusiasts: An Analysis of Southern European Public Opinions’. Acta Politica 42 (2 –3), 211–32.

McDonald, M., Mendes, S. M., and Budge, I. (2004) ‘What Are Elections For? Conferring the Median Mandate’. British Journal of Political Science 34, 1–26.

McLaren, L. M. (2002) ‘Public Support for the European Union: Cost/Benefit Analysis or Perceived Cultural Threat?’. The Journal of Politics 64(2), 551–66.

(p.278) ——  (2006) Identity, Interests and Attitudes to European Integration (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

——  (2007) ‘Explaining Opposition to Turkish Membership of the EU’. European Union Politics 8(2), 251–78.

Mair, P. (2001) ‘Searching for the Positions of Political Actors: a Review of Approaches and a Critical Evaluation of Expert Surveys,’ in M. Laver (ed.), Estimating the Policy Positions of Political Actors (London: Routledge), pp. 10–30.

——  (2007) ‘Political parties and party systems’, in P. Graziano and M. Vink (eds), Europeanization. New Research Agendas (London: Palgrave), pp. 154–66.

Malefakis E. (1995) ‘The Political and Socioeconomic Contours of Southern European History’, in P. N. Diamandouros and R. Gunther (eds), Parties, Politics and Democracy in the New Southern Europe (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press), pp. 33–76.

Manin, B. (1997) The Principles of Representative Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Manners, I. (2002) ‘Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?’ Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(2), 235–58.

March, J. G. (1988) Decisions and Organizations (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).

Marcussen M., Risse, T., Engelmann-Martin, D., Knopf, H. J., and Roscher, K. (1999) ‘Constructing Europe? The Evolution of French, British and German Nation State Identities’. Journal of European Public Policy 6(4), 614–33.

Marks, G. (1998) ‘Public Support for European Integration: An Empirical Test of Five Theories’. Journal of Politics 60(2), 333–58.

——  (2004) ‘Conclusion: European Integration and Political Conflict’, in G. Marks and M. Steenbergen (eds), European Integration and Political Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 235–59.

——  Hooghe, L. and Wilson, C. (1999) ‘National Parties and the Contestation of Europe’, in T. Banchoff and M. Smith (eds), Legitimacy and the European Union: The Contested Polity (London: Routledge), pp. 113–33.

——  —— Nelson, M., and Edwards, E. (2006) ‘Party Competition and European Integration in the East and West: Different Structure, Same Causality’. Comparative Political Studies 39, 155–75.

——  and M. Steenbergen (2002) ‘Understanding Political Contestation in the European Union’. Comparative Political Studies 35 (8), 879–92.

——  —— (eds) (2004) European Integration and Political Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Marshall, T. H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Matonytė, I. and Morkevičius, V. (2009) ‘Threat Perception and European Identity Building: The Case of Elites in Belgium, Germany, Lithuania and Poland’. Europe-Asia Studies 61(6), 967–85.

Matthews, D. R. and Valen, H. (1999) Parliamentary Representation (Columbus: Ohio State University Press).

Mattila, M. and Raunio T. (2006) ‘Cautious Voters––Supportive Parties’. European Union Politics 7, 427–49.

(p.279) Merrill, S. and Grofman, B. (1999) A Unified Theory of Voting: Directional and Proximity Spatial Models (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Miller, W. E. and Stokes, D. E. (1963) ‘Constituency influence in Congress’. American Political Science Review 57, 165–77.

——  Pierce, R., Thomassen, J., Herrera, R., Holmberg, S., Esaiasson, P., and Wessels, B. (1999) Policy Representation in Western Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Milward, A. S. (1992/2000) The European Rescue of the Nation State. (London: Routledge).

Moravčsik, A. (1998) The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).

Mörth, U. (2003) ‘Framing an American Threat. The European Commission and the Technology Gap’, in M. Knodt and S. Princen (eds), Understanding the European Union’s External Relations (London: Routledge), pp. 75–91.

Mudde, C. (2007) Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Müller, W. C. (2000) ‘Political Parties in Parliamentary Democracies: Making Delegation and Accountability Work’. European Journal of Political Research 37, 309–33.

——  and Jenny, M. (2000) ‘Abgeordnete, Parteien und Koalitionspolitik’. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft 29: 137–56.

Narud, H. M. and Valen, H. (2000) ‘Mass and Elite Attitudes towards Future Problems’, in P. Esaiasson and K. Heidar (eds), Beyond Westminster and Congress: The Nordic Experience, (Columbus: Ohio State University Press), pp. 83–106.

Nelson, B. F. and Guth, J. (2000) ‘Exploring the Gender Gap: Women, Men and Public Attitudes toward European Integration’. European Union Politics 1, 267–91.

——  —— and Fraser, C. R. (2001) ‘Does Religion Matter? Christianity and Public Support for the European Union’. European Union Politics 6, 89–112.

Neumann, I. B. (1996) Russia and the Idea of Europe: A Study in Identity and International Relations (London: Routledge).

Neumann, S. (1956) Modern Political Parties (Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press).

Newton, K. (2007) ‘Social and Political Trust’, in R. J. Dalton and H.D. Klingemann (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Behaviour (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 342–61.

North, Douglass C. (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

O’Leary, S. (1996) The Evolving Concept of Community Citizenship (The Hague: Kluwer).

O’Sullivan, J. (2004) ‘In Defense of Nationalism’. The National Interest 78, 33–40.

Page, E. (1997) People Who Run Europe (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Papademetriou, D. G. (ed.) (2006) Europe And Its Immigrants in the 21st Century: A New Deal or a Continuing Dialogue of the Deaf? (Washington: Migration Policy Institute and the Luso-American Foundation).

Poehls K. (2009) Europa Backstage. Expertenwissen, Habitus und kulturelle Codes im Machtfeld der EU (Bielefeld: Transcript).

Poguntke T. et al. (2005) The Europeanization of National Political Parties, Power and Organizational Adaptation (London: Routledge).

Powell, G. Bingham (2000) Elections as Instruments of Democracy: Majoritarian and Proportional Visions (New Haven: Yale University Press).

(p.280) ——  (2004) ‘Political Representation in Comparative Politics’. Annual Review of Political Science 7, 273–96.

——  (2009) ‘The Ideological Congruence Controversy. The Impact of Alternative Conceptualizations and Data on the Effects of Election Rules’. Comparative Political Studies 42, 1475–97.

Putnam, R.D. (1973) The Beliefs of Politicians (New Haven: Yale University Press).

——  (1976) The Comparative Study of Political Elites (New Jersey: Prentice Hall).

Rabinowitz, G. and MacDonald, S. (1989) ‘A Directional Theory of Issue Voting’. American Political Science Review 83, 93–121.

Raunio, T. (2009) ‘National Parliaments and European Integration: What We Know and Agenda for Future Research’. Journal of Legislative Studies 15, 317–34.

Ray, L. (1999) ‘Measuring Party Orientations Towards European Integration: Results from an Expert Survey’. European Journal of Political Research 36(2), 283–306.

Rehfeld, A. (2005) The Concept of Constituency: Political Representation, Democratic Legitimacy, and Institutional Design (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Richardson, J. (ed.) (2006) European Union. Power and Policy-Making, third edition (London: Routledge).

Risse, T. (2001) ‘A European Identity? Europeanization and the Evolution of Nation-State Identities’, in, M. Green Cowles, J. Caporaso, and T. Risse (eds), Transforming Europe: Europeanization and Domestic Change, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), pp. 198–216.

——  (2006) ‘Neofunctionalism, European Identity and the Puzzles of European Integration’. Journal of European Public Policy 13, 291–309.

Rohrschneider, R. (2002) ‘The Democracy Deficit and Mass Support for an EU-Wide Government’. American Journal of Political Science 46(2), 463–75.

——  and Whitefield, S. (2006) ‘Political Parties, Public Opinion and European Integration in Post-Communist Countries: The State of the Art’. European Union Politics 7(1), 141–60.

——  —— (2007) ‘Representation in New Democracies: Party Stances on European Integration in Post-Communist Eastern Europe’. The Journal of Politics 69(4), 1133–46.

Rokkan, S. (1970) Citizens, Elections, Parties (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget).

Rousseau, D. L. and Garcia-Retamero, R. (2007) ‘Identity, Power, and Threat Perception: A Cross-National Experimental Study’. Journal of Conflict Resolution 51(5), 744–71.

Sabatier, P. A. (1998) ‘The Advocacy Coalition Framework: Revisions and Relevance for Europe’. Journal of European Public Policy 5(1), 98–130.

Sánchez-Cuenca, I. (2000) ‘The Political Basis of Support for European Integration’. European Union Politics, 1(2), 147–71.

Sanders, D., Bellucci, P., Toka, G., and Torcal, M. (2011) ‘Conceptualising and Measuring European Citizenship and Engagement’, in D. Sanders, P. Bellucci, M. Torcal, and G. Toka (eds), The Europeanization of National Polities? Citizenship and Support in a Post-Enlargement Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press) (forthcoming).

Sartori, G. (1976) Parties and Party Systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Scharpf, F. W. (2009a) ‘Democratic Policy in Europe’. European Law Journa, 2, 136–55.

——  (2009b) ‘Legitimacy in the multilevel European Polity’. European Political Science Review 1, 173–204.

(p.281) Schlesinger, P. (2007) ‘ “Europeanness”––A New Cultural Battlefield?’, in J. Hutchinson and A. D. Smith (eds), Nationalism. Critical Concepts in Political Science (London: Routledge), pp. 316–25.

Schmidt, V. A. (2002) The Future of European Capitalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Schmitt, H. and Thomassen, J. (eds) (1999) Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

——  —— (2000) ‘Dynamic Representation: The Case of European Integration’. European Union Politics 1, 318–39.

Schmitter, P. C. (1996) ‘Imagining the Future of the Euro-Polity with the Help of New Concepts’, in G. Marks, F. W. Scharpf, P. C. Schmitter, and W. Streeck (eds), Governance in the European Union (London: Sage), 121–50.

——  (2004) On Democracy in Europe and the Democratization of Europe (Madrid: Universidad Carlos III).

Schoen, H. (2008), ‘Identity, Instrumental Self-Interest and Institutional Evaluations: Explaining Public Opinion on Common European Policies in Foreign Affairs and Defence’. European Union Politics 9(1), 5–29.

Scully, R. (2005) Becoming Europeans? Attitudes, Behaviours and Socialization in the European Parliament (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Šešelgytė, M. (2007) Europos Sajungos bendro gynybos identiteto problema (Vilnius: Baltos lankos).

Shlesinger, J. A. (1966) Ambition and Politics. Political Careers in the United States (Chicago: Rand Mc Nally & Company).

Sitter, N. (2001) ‘The Politics of Opposition and European Integration in Scandinavia: Is Euro-Scepticism a Government-Opposition Dynamic?’. West European Politics 24(4), 22–39.

——  (2002) ‘Opposing Europe: Euro-scepticism, Opposition and Party Competition’. SEI Working Papers n. 56, University of Sussex.

Sklair, L. (2001) The Transnational Capitalist Class (Oxford: Blackwell).

Slater, M. (1994) ‘Political Elites, Popular Indifference and Community-Building’, in B. Nelsen and A. Stubb (eds), The European Union: Readings on the Theory and Practice of European Integration (Boulder: Lynne Reinner), pp. 153–68.

Snijders, T. and Bosker, T. (1999) Multilevel Analysis. An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modelling (London: Sage).

Spence, J. (1997) The European Union: A View from the Top (Wavre, Belgium: EOS Gallup Europe).

Steenbergen, M. R. and Jones, B. S. (2002) ‘Modeling Multilevel Data Structures’. American Journal of Political Science 46(1), 218–37.

——  Edwards, E. R. and De Vries, C. E. (2007) ‘Who is Cueing Whom? Mass-Elite Linkages and the Future of European Integration’. European Union Politics 8(1), 13–35.

Stimson, J. A., MacKuen, M. B., and Erikson, R. S. (1995) ‘Dynamic Representation’. American Political Science Review 89, 543–65.

Strøm, K. (2003) ‘Parliamentary Democracy and Delegation’, in K. Strøm, W. C. Müller, and T. Bergman (eds), Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 55–106.

(p.282) ——  Müller, W. C. and Bergman, T. (eds) (2003) Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Szczerbiak, A. and Taggart, P. (2000) Opposing Europe: Party Systems and Opposition to the Union, the Euro and Europeanisation. Opposing Europe Working Paper No. 1, Sussex European Institute, University of Sussex.

——  —— (2002) The Party Politics of Euro-scepticism in EU Member and Candidate States. Paper Presented at the European Consortium for Political Research Joint Workshop, 21–27 March, Turin.

——  —— (2003) Theorising Party-Based Euro-Scepticism: Problems of Definition, Measurement and Causality. Paper presented at the 8th Biannual International Conference of the European Union Studies Association conference, Nashville.

——  —— (eds) (2008) Opposing Europe? The Comparative Party Politics of Euroscepticism. Comparative and Theoretical Perspectives, Volume 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Taggart, P. (1998) ‘A Touchstone of Dissent: Euroscepticism in Contemporary Western European Party Systems’. European Journal of Political Research 33, 363–88.

——  and Szczerbiak, A. (2001) ‘Crossing Europe: Patterns of Contemporary Party-Based Euroscepticism in EU Member States and the Candidate States of Central and Eastern Europe’. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, 29 August–2 September, San Francisco.

Thomassen, J. (1994) ‘Empirical Research into Political Representation: Failing Democracy or Failing Models’, in M. Kent Jennings and T. E. Mann (eds), Elections at Home and Abroad: Essays in Honor of Warren E. Miller (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press), pp. 237–64.

——  and Schmitt, H. (1997) ‘Policy Representation’. European Journal of Political Research 32, 165–84.

Tilly, C. (1990) Coercion, Capital and European States AD 9901990 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).

Tsebelis, G. and Garrett, G. (2000) ‘Legislative Politics in the European Union’. European Union Politics 1, 9–36.

Ugur, M. (1995) ‘Freedom of Movement vs. Exclusion: A Reinterpretation of the “Insider”–Outsider” Divide in the European Union’. International Migration Review 29(4), 964–99.

Valen, H. and Narud, H. M. (2007) ‘The Conditional Party Mandate: A Model for the Study of Mass and Elite Opinion Patterns’. European Journal of Political Research 46, 293–318.

Van Kersbergen, K. (2000) ‘Political Allegiance and European Integration’. European Journal of Political Research 37(1), 1–17.

Vaughan-Whitehead, D. C. (2003) EU Enlargement versus Social Europe? The Uncertain Future of the European Social Model (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing).

Verdun, A. (1999) ‘The Role of the Delors Committee in Creating EMU: An Epistemic Community?’. Journal of European Public Policy 6(2), 308–28.

Verzichelli L. and Edinger, M. (2005) ‘A critical juncture? The 2004 European Elections and the Making of a Supranational Elite’. Journal of Legislative Studies 11(2), 254–73.

Visser, J., (2009) ICTWSS: Database on Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts in 34 countries between1960 and 2007 (Version 2). (p.283) (Amsterdam: Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies). http://www.uva-aias.net/208〉 (accessed 6 November 2009).

Vössing, K. (2005) ‘Nationality and the Preferences of the European Public toward EU Policy-Making’. European Union Politics 6(4), 445–67.

Wagner, A. C. (1998) Les nouvelles élites de la mondialisation. Une immigration dorée en France (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France).

Wallerstein, I. (1974) The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press).

Ware, A. (1996) Parties and Party Systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Warwick, P. V. (2001) ‘Coalition Policy in Parliamentary Democracies’. Comparative Political Studies 34, 1212–36.

——  and J. N. Druckman (2006) ‘The Portfolio Allocation Paradox: An Investigation into the Nature of a Very Strong But Puzzling Relationship’. European Journal of Political Research 45, 635–65.

Weber, M. (1922/1980) Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie. 6. Aufl., hrsg. von Johannes Winckelmann (Tübingen: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften).

——  (2002) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin).

Weiler, J. H. H. (1999) The Constitution of Europe:‘Do the New Clothes Have an Emperor?’ and Other Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Weisberg, R. (1978) ‘Collective vs. Dyadic Representation in Congress’. American Political Science Review 72, 535–47.

Wessels, B. (1995) ‘Evaluations of the EC: Elite or Mass Driven’, in O. Niedermayer and R. Sinott (eds), Public Opinion and Internationalized Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 137–62.

——  (1999a) ‘System Characteristics Matter: Empirical Evidence from Ten Representation Studies’, in W. Miller, R. Pierce, J. Thomassen, R. Herrera, S. Holmberg, P. Esaiasson, and B. Wessels (eds), Policy Representation in Western Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 137–61.

——  (1999b) ‘Whom to Represent? Role Orientations of Legislators in Europe’, in H. Schmitt and J. Thomassen (eds), Political representation and Legitimacy in The European Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 209–35.

——  and Katz, R. S. (1999) ‘Introduction: The European Parliament, the National Parliaments, and European Integration’, in R. S. Katz and B. Wessels (eds), The European Parliament, the National Parliaments, and European Integration (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 3–18.

——  and Kielhorn, A. (1999) ‘Which Political Competencies for Which Political Level?’, in R. S. Katz and B. Wessels (eds), The European Parliament, the National Parliaments, and European Integration (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 174–96.

Wodak, R. (2004) ‘National and Transnational Identities: European and Other Identities Constructed in Interviews with EU Officials’, in R. K. Herrmann, T. Risse-Kappen, and M. B. Brewer (eds), Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield), pp. 97–128. (p.284)