How is it possible to think when one’s actions must occur at lightning-fast speeds? This chapter questions whether there are situations—such as race car driving, warfare, and emergency room nursing—requiring such quick responses that thinking, especially conscious thinking, would be impossible. Among others, it investigates situations where experts purportedly need to react to something before they have time to consciously see it. It is proffered with respect to interceptive sports, such as tennis, baseball, and cricket, that because such experts detect clues before the ball leaves the pitcher’s hand or their opponent’s racket and because it is an open question when a person becomes conscious of an event, conscious thinking in action should not be ruled out. Along the way, this chapter discusses work by (among others) Patricia Benner, Jane Cioffi, Karl von Clausewitz, David Papineau, Jeffrey Gray, Sian Beilock, Johnson and Raab, and Shakespeare.
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