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Politics at the CentreThe Selection and Removal of Party Leaders in the Anglo Parliamentary Democracies$

William P. Cross and André Blais

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199596720

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596720.001.0001

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(p.182) Appendix

(p.182) Appendix

Source:
Politics at the Centre
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Leaders by party (January 1965–January 2008); dates of tenure; method of selection (for leaders chosen in 1965 or later); ballot on which selected (number of counts for preferential elections); categorization of reason for departure. (Only permanent leaders listed.)1

Australia

Labor Party

Arthur Calwell, March 1960–February 1967. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Gough Whitlam, February 1967–December 1977. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

William Hayden, December 1977–February 1983. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Robert Hawke, February 1983–December 1991. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while serving as Prime Minister.

Paul Keating, December 1991–March 1996. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure after losing a general election he entered as Prime Minister.

Kim Beazley, March 1996–November 2001. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Simon Crean, November 2001–December 2003. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Mark Latham, December 2003–January 2005. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Kim Beazley, January 2005–December 2006. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while serving in opposition.

Kevin Rudd, December 2006. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot.

Liberal Party

Robert Menzies, February 1944–January 1966. Resigned voluntarily while serving as Prime Minister.

Harold Holt, January 1966–December 1967. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Died in office while serving as Prime Minister.

John Gorton, January 1968–March 1971. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while serving as Prime Minister.

William McMahon, March 1971–December 1972. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure after losing a general election he entered as Prime Minister.

Bill Snedden, December 1972–March 1975. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the fourth ballot. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

(p.183) Malcolm Fraser, March 1975–March 1983. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Andrew Peacock, March 1983–September 1985. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

John Howard, September 1985–May 1989. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Andrew Peacock, May 1989–April 1990. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

John Hewson, April 1990–May 1994. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Alexander Downer, May 1994–January 1995. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

John Howard, January 1995–November 2007. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure after losing a general election he entered as Prime Minister.

Brendan Nelson, November 2007. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot.

National Party

John McEwen, March 1958–February 1971. Resigned voluntarily while party serving in government.

Doug Anthony, February 1971–January 1984. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party (some uncertainty here as some claim Anthony was opposed). Resigned voluntarily while serving in opposition.

Ian Sinclair, January 1984–May 1989. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Charles Blunt, May 1989–April 1990. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Resigned the leadership, while in opposition, after losing his parliamentary seat in a general election (coded as resigned under pressure).

Tim Fischer, April 1990–July 1999. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the fourth ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving in government.

John Anderson, July 1999–June 2005. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned voluntarily while serving in government.

Mark Vaile, June 2005–December 2007. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Warren Truss, December 2007. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party.

Canada

Bloc Québécois

Lucien Bouchard, June 1991–January 1996. Acclaimed as leader at the party’s founding convention. Resigned voluntarily while serving in opposition.

Michel Gauthier, February 1996–March 1997. Selected by the party’s General Council on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Gilles Duceppe, March 1997. Selected in a membership ballot on the second ballot.

(p.184) Conservative Party

John Diefenbaker, December 1956–September 1967. Formally removed from the leadership by the extra‐parliamentary party while in opposition.

Robert Stanfield, September 1967–February 1976. Selected at a delegated convention on the fifth ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Joe Clark, February 1976–February 1983. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Brian Mulroney, June 1983–June 1993. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot. Resigned voluntarily while serving as Prime Minister.

Kim Campbell, June 1993–December 1993. Selected at a delegated party convention on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure shortly after losing parliamentary seat in a general election that she entered as Prime Minister (in which her party was also defeated).

Jean Charest, December 1993–April 1998. Selected as ‘interim’ leader in December 1993 by party executive and ‘ratified’ as leader at a delegated party convention in April 1995. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Joe Clark, November 1998–May 2003. Selected in a membership ballot on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Peter MacKay, May 2003–December 2003. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot. Resigned when party merged with the Canadian Alliance.

Stephen Harper, March 2004. Selected in a membership ballot on the first ballot.

Liberal Party

Lester Pearson, January 1958–April 1968. Selected at a delegated party convention on the first ballot. Resigned voluntarily while serving as Prime Minister.

Pierre Trudeau, April 1968–June 1984. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot. Resigned voluntarily while serving as Prime Minister.

John Turner, June 1984–May 1990. Selected at a delegated party convention on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Jean Chrétien, June 1990–December 2003. Selected at a delegated party convention on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving as Prime Minister.

Paul Martin, December 2003–March 2006. Selected at a delegated party convention on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure after losing a general election which he entered as Prime Minister.

Stéphane Dion, December 2006. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot.

New Democratic Party

Tommy Douglas, August 1961–April 1971. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

David Lewis, April 1971–July 1975. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot. Resigned after losing his parliamentary seat in general election while in opposition (coded as resigned under pressure).

Ed Broadbent, July 1975–December 1989. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Audrey McLaughlin, December 1989–October 1995. Selected at a delegated party convention on the fourth ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

(p.185) Alexa McDonough, October 1995–January 2003. Selected at a delegated party convention on the second ballot (after candidate leading on first ballot withdrew). Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Jack Layton, January 2003. Selected in a vote of party’s electoral college on the first ballot.

Reform/Canadian Alliance Party

Preston Manning, May 1987–March 2000. Selected by acclamation at a party convention. Resigned leadership when party recreated as Canadian Alliance while in opposition.

Stockwell Day, July 2000–December 2001. Selected in a membership ballot on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Stephen Harper, March 2002–December 2003. Selected in a membership ballot on the first ballot. Resigned leadership when party merged with Progressive Conservative party.

United Kingdom

Conservative Party

Alec Douglas-Home, October 1963–July 1965. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Edward Heath*, July 1965–February 1975. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Resigned the leadership, while in opposition, after trailing Thatcher in first ballot of leadership challenge (coded as formally removed).

Margaret Thatcher, February 1975–November 1990. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Resigned the leadership, while in government, after failing to receive required number of votes to win on first ballot of leadership challenge (coded as formally removed).

John Major*, November 1990–June 1997. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the third ballot. Resigned the leadership under pressure after losing a general election he entered as Prime Minister.

William Hague, June 1997–September 2001. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the third ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Iain Duncan Smith, September 2001–November 2003. Selected through a hybrid process of MP balloting leading to a membership vote between two finalists. Removed from the leadership through a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Michael Howard, November 2003–December 2005. Acclaimed as party leader by the parliamentary party. Resigned the leadership under pressure while in opposition.

David Cameron, December 2005. Selected through a hybrid process of MP balloting leading to a membership vote between two finalists.

(*Both Heath and Major were acclaimed on the final ballot as their competitors withdrew in their favour.)

Labour Party

Harold Wilson, February 1963–April 1976. Resigned voluntarily while serving as Prime Minister.

James Callaghan, April 1976–November 1980. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the third ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Michael Foot, November 1980–October 1983. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

(p.186) Neil Kinnock, October 1983–July 1992. Selected in a vote of the party’s electoral college on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

John Smith, July 1992–May 1994. Selected in a vote of the party’s electoral college on the first ballot. Died in office while in opposition.

Tony Blair, July 1994–June 2007. Selected in a vote of the party’s electoral college on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving as Prime Minister.

Gordon Brown, June 2007. Acclaimed as leader as no other candidate had sufficient parliamentary party support to stand in the electoral college.

Liberal Party

Joseph Grimond, November 1956–January 1967. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Jeremy Thorpe, January 1967–May 1976. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot (acclaimed on last ballot as opponents withdrew in his favour). Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

David Steel, July 1976–July 1988. Selected in a membership ballot on the first ballot. Resigned when party merged into Liberal Democratic Party.

Social Democratic Party

Roy Jenkins, July 1982–June 1983. Selected in a membership ballot on the first ballot. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

David Owen, June 1983–August 1987. Acclaimed as leader as no other candidate had sufficient parliamentary party support to stand in a membership ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Robert Maclennan, August 1987–July 1988. Acclaimed as leader as no other candidate had sufficient parliamentary party support to stand in a membership ballot. Resigned when party merged into Liberal Democratic Party.

Liberal Democratic Party

Paddy Ashdown, July 1988–August 1999. Selected in a membership ballot on the first ballot. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Charles Kennedy, August 1999–January 2006. Selected in a membership ballot on the fourth ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Menzies Campbell, March 2006–October 2007. Selected in a membership ballot on the second ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Nick Clegg, December 2007. Selected in a membership ballot on the first ballot.

Ireland

Fianna Fáil

Seán Lemass, June 1959–November 1966. Resigned voluntarily while serving as Taoiseach.

Jack Lynch, November 1966–December 1979. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving as Taoiseach.

(p.187) Charles Haughey, December 1979–February 1992. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving as Taoiseach.

Albert Reynolds*, February 1992–November 1994. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving at Taoiseach.

Bertie Ahern, November 1994. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party.

(*Reynolds resigned as Taoiseach hours before resigning the party leadership.)

Fine Gael

James Dillon, October 1959–April 1965. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Liam Cosgrave, April 1965–July 1977. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure after losing a general election he entered as Taoiseach.

Garret FitzGerald, July 1977–March 1987. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure after losing a general election he entered as Taoiseach.

Alan Dukes, March 1987–November 1990. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

John Bruton, November 1990–February 2001. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Removed from the leadership through a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Michael Noonan, February 2001–June 2002. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Enda Kenny, June 2002. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the third ballot.

Green Party

Trevor Sargent, October 2001–July 2007. Selected at a party convention on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure as party about to enter government for first time with Fianna Fáil.

John Gormley, July 2007. Selected in a membership ballot on the first ballot.

Labour Party

Brendan Corish, March 1960–July 1977. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Frank Cluskey, July 1977–June 1981. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot. Resigned leadership after losing parliamentary seat in general election that saw the party join government (coded as resigned under pressure).

Michael O’Leary, June 1981–October 1982. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Dick Spring, November 1982–November 1997. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Ruairi Quinn, November 1997–October 2002. Selected in a joint vote of parliamentary party and general council (process called for when incumbent retiring before end of fixed term) on first ballot. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Pat Rabbitte, October 2002–September 2007. Selected in a membership ballot on the second ballot. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Eamon Gilmore, September 2007. Selected by acclamation in a membership ballot.

(p.188) Progressive Democrats

Desmond O’Malley, December 1985–October 1993. Selected by ‘consensus’ of TDs forming new party as founding leader. Resigned voluntarily while in opposition.

Mary Harney, October 1993–September 2006. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned voluntarily while in government.

Michael McDowell, September 2006–May 2007. Selected by acclamation, rules called for an ‘electoral college’ vote if more than one candidate. Resigned after losing seat in a general election while party in government (coded as resigned under pressure).

New Zealand

ACT New Zealand

Roger Douglas, November 1994–March 1996. Selected as inaugural party leader by ‘consensus’ among those forming new party. Resigned voluntarily before party contested its first election.

Richard Prebble, March 1996–June 2004. Selected through a vote of the party’s Board of Trustees. Resigned under pressure while serving in opposition.

Rodney Hide, June 2004. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the second ballot (after first ballot resulted in a tie). Parliamentary party vote preceded by a ‘consultative’ ballot of party members.

Green Party

Jeanette Fitzsimons, May 1995. Selected as female party leader by acclamation at a delegated party conference.

Rod Donald, May 1995–November 2005. Selected as male party leader on second ballot at a delegated party conference. Died in office while serving in opposition.

Russel Norman, June 2006. Selected as male party leader on first ballot at a delegated party conference.

Labour Party

Arnold Nordmeyer, April 1963–December 1965. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Norman Kirk, December 1965–August 1974. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Died in office while serving as Prime Minister.

Bill Rowling, September 1974–February 1983. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

David Lange, February 1983–August 1989. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving as Prime Minister.

Geoffrey Palmer, August 1989–September 1990. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving as Prime Minister.

Michael Moore, September 1990–December 1993. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Helen Clark, December 1993. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot.

(p.189) Maori Party

Tariana Turia, July 2004. Selected as female party leader, by ‘consensus’, at party’s founding conference or Hui. (Was not challenged for the leadership.)

Pita Sharples, July 2004. Selected as male party leader, by ‘consensus’, at party’s founding conference or Hui. (Was not challenged for the leadership.)

National Party

Keith Holyoake, September 1957–February 1972. Resigned voluntarily while serving as Prime Minister.

Jack Marshall, February 1972–July 1974. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Robert Muldoon, July 1974–November 1984. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Jim McLay, November 1984–March 1986. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Jim Bolger, March 1986–December 1997. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while serving as Prime Minister.

Jenny Shipley*, December 1997–October 2001. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

Bill English, October 2001–October 2003. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party. Removed from the leadership by a vote of the parliamentary party while in opposition.

Don Brash, October 2003–November 2006. Selected in a parliamentary party vote on the first ballot. Resigned under pressure while in opposition.

John Key, November 2006. Selected by acclamation by the parliamentary party.

(*Shipley was chosen leader on 4 November 1997; however, Bolger remained as Prime Minister and party leader until 8 December.)

New Zealand First

Winston Peters, July 1993. Selected by ‘consensus’ as party’s inaugural leader.

United Future

Peter Dunne, November 2000. Selected by ‘consensus’ as party’s inaugural leader as part of merger agreement between United New Zealand and Future New Zealand.

Notes:

(1.) There are often a series of complicated details surrounding each leadership transition. Our intent here is simply to show the chronology of leaders, the length of each leadership (p.190) tenure, an indication of the competitiveness of each contest, who the selectorate was, and whether the transition was voluntary.

After consulting with country experts, leaders resigning in the immediate aftermath of a significant electoral defeat are considered to have resigned under pressure. In some instances they resigned before the pressure became apparent; nonetheless, had they tried to stay on they were likely to have faced significant opposition.