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The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology$
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Erik Svensson and Ryan Calsbeek

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199595372

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.001.0001

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Phenotype Landscapes, Adaptive Landscapes, and the Evolution of Development

Phenotype Landscapes, Adaptive Landscapes, and the Evolution of Development

Chapter:
(p.283) Chapter 18 Phenotype Landscapes, Adaptive Landscapes, and the Evolution of Development
Source:
The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology
Author(s):

Sean H. Rice

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0018

Sewall Wright originally conceived of his Adaptive Landscape as a visual device to capture the consequences of non-linear (epistatic) interactions between genes. A useful way to visualise a multivariate non-linear function is through a ‘landscape’, an important factor to consider when applying Adaptive Landscape models to questions about the evolution of development. This chapter examines how a phenotype landscape (also known as phenotypic landscape or developmental landscape) can explicitly map genetic and developmental traits to the phenotypic traits upon which selection acts. After outlining the basic properties of phenotype landscapes, it considers how they are used in concert with an Adaptive Landscape to study the evolution of development. It then describes the formal theory for evolution on phenotype landscapes and how it generalises the quantitative genetic approaches that are often applied to Adaptive Landscapes. The chapter concludes by illustrating how phenotype landscape theory can be used to study the evolution of genetic covariance, heritability, and novelty.

Keywords:   evolution, Adaptive Landscape, development, phenotype landscapes, developmental traits, phenotypic traits, genetic covariance, heritability, novelty

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