Party leaders in different contexts: the role of political institutions
This chapter assesses the extent to which political institutions may mediate the impact of leaders' traits. There is variation in political context across the elections included in this study, providing a basis for examining the role of political institutions. The chapter looks at the impact of the degree of proportionality in elections, the effective number of parties competing in a campaign, as well as the role of electoral systems and legislative organization, including federalism and bicameralism. The analysis of data points to the need for more research, but suggests that proportionality and the number of parties competing may have the largest influence on the impact of leaders' traits in elections.
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