Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Platform or Personality?The Role of Party Leaders in Elections$

Amanda Bittner

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199595365

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595365.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 27 May 2017

(p.155) Appendix B: Data, Question Wording, and Coding Information

(p.155) Appendix B: Data, Question Wording, and Coding Information

Source:
Platform or Personality?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Partisanship

Canada, 1968

Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as Liberal, Conservative, NDP, Creditiste, Social Credit, Union Nationale, or what?

Canada, 1984

Thinking of federal politics, do you usually think of yourself as a Liberal, Progressive Conservative, NDP or what?

Canada, 1988

Thinking of federal politics, do you usually think of yourself as a Liberal, Conservative, NDP, or none of these?

Canada, 1993, 1997

Thinking of federal politics, do you usually think of yourself as a Liberal, Conservative, NDP (Reform/Bloc Quebecois), or none of these?

Canada, 2000

Respondents were randomly assigned to one of two party identification questions. Responses to both questions were combined to create the PID variable.

  • Thinking of federal politics, do you usually think of yourself as a Liberal, Bloc Quebecois, Alliance, Conservative, NDP, or none of these?

  • Generally speaking, in federal politics, do you usually think of yourself as a Liberal, Bloc Quebecois, Alliance, Conservative, NDP, or do you usually think of yourself as not having a general preference?

Canada, 2004, 2006

Respondents were randomly assigned to one of two party identification questions. Responses to both questions were combined to create the PID variable.

  • In federal politics, do you usually think of yourself as a Liberal, Conservative, NDP, Bloc Quebecois or none of these?

  • In federal politics, do you usually think of yourself as a Liberal, Conservative, NDP, Bloc Quebecois, another party, or no party?

The United States, 1972–2004 (National Election Study)

Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as a Republican, a Democrat, an Independent, or what?

(p.156) The United States, 2000 (National Annenberg Election Study—NAES)

Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as a Republican, a Democrat, an independent, or something else?

Britain, 1983, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2001

Generally speaking, do you think of yourself as a Conservative, Labour, Liberal, Social Democrat, Nationalist/Plaid Cymru, or what?

Australia, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004

Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as Liberal, Labor, National, or what?

New Zealand, 1999

Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as Labour, National, NZ First, Alliance, Act or some other, or don't you think of yourself in this way?

New Zealand, 2002

Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as National, Labour, Act, Greens, New Zealand First, or some other, or don't you usually think of yourself in this way?

Germany, 1980, 1987

Many people in the federal republic lean toward a particular party for a long time, although they may occasionally vote for a different party. How about you? Do you in general lean towards a particular party? If so, which one?

Sweden, 1988

Many people consider themselves as supporters of a specific party. But there are many others who do not feel such an attachment to any of the parties. Do you generally think of yourself as a supporter of, for example, the People's Party, Social Democrats, Moderate Party, VPK, Green Party, or KDS? Or do you feel no such attachment to any of the parties? Which party do you like best?

Sweden, 1991

Many people consider themselves adherents of a specific party. But there are also many others who do not have such an attachment to any of the parties. Do you usually think of yourself as, for example, a folkpartist, socialdemocrat, moderat, centerpartist, vansterpartist, miljopartist, KDS: are or nydemocrat? Or do you not have such an attachment to any of the parties? Which party do you like best?

For inclusion in the analyses, based on these questions, dummy variables were created to capture partisanship for the following categories of parties: Centre-Left, Conservative, Left, Other, and None.

Ideology

Canada, 1968

Now I have a different kind of question for you. I am going to show you some word pairs. Each pair is separated by seven boxes like this. For example, if you think that the particular political party is very modern, you would put a check mark in the box on the right end of the scale. If you think it is very out-of-date, you would check the box on the left end of the scale. Or you might rate it somewhere between these two extremes. (Respondent is asked to check where the ‘ideal party’ would be located on a seven-point left/right scale.)

(p.157) Canada, 1984

For the next few questions I would like you to use this scale which goes from left to right, with ‘1’ being the most to the left and ‘7’ being the most to the right. When you think of your own political opinions, where would you put yourself on this scale?

Canada, 1988

Sometimes in Canada people use the labels ‘left’ or ‘left-wing’ and ‘right’ or ‘right-wing’ to describe political parties, politicians and political ideas. Do you sometimes use these labels? (Y/N) if Yes: Where would you place yourself: very much to the left, somewhat to the left, in the centre, somewhat to the right, or very much to the right?

Canada, 1997

In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place yourself on the scale below? (0–10 scale)

Canada, 2000

Some people talk about political parties being on the LEFT or the RIGHT. And finally, you personally. Would you say: on the left, on the right, in the centre, not sure.

Canada, 2004, 2006

In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place yourself on the scale below? (0–10 scale)

The United States, 1972–2000 (NES)

We hear a lot of talk these days about liberals and conservatives. Here is (1972/1974: I am going to show you) a seven-point scale on which the political views that people might hold are arranged from extremely liberal to extremely conservative. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or haven't you thought much about this?

The United States, 2004 (NES)

Please turn to page 17 of the booklet. In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place yourself on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means the left and 10 means the right?

The United States, 2000 (NAES)

Generally speaking, would you describe your political views as very conservative, conservative, moderate, liberal, or very liberal?

Britain, 1983

Respondents' Left/Right self-placement, on −10 to +10 scale.

Britain, 1997

In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place yourself on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means the left and 10 means the right?

Britain, 2001

In politics, people sometimes talk of left and right. Using the scale from 0 to 10, where would you place 〈5 parties〉. And finally, where would you place yourself?

Australia, 1987

In political matters, people talk about the ‘left’ and the ‘right’. Generally speaking, where would you place your views on the scale? (1–10 scale)

(p.158) Australia, 1993

In politics, people talk about the ‘left’ and the ‘right’. Generally speaking, where would you place your views on the left-right scale? (1–10 scale)

Australia, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004

In politics, people sometimes talk about the ‘left’ and the ‘right’. Where would you place yourself on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means the left and 10 means the right?

New Zealand, 1999, 2002

In politics, people sometimes talk about the ‘left’ and the ‘right’. If you can, where would you place yourself on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means the most left and 10 means the most right?

Germany, 1980

There are various terms which are frequently used when talking about the political parties, such as ‘left’ and ‘right’. Please mark this scale where you would place the SPD, the CDU, the FDP, the CSU, and the Greens. And where would you place the party which would be the ideal party for you? (1–11 scale)

Germany, 1987

There are various terms which are frequently used when talking about the political parties, such as ‘left’ and ‘right’. Please mark this scale where you would place the SPD, the CDU, the FDP, the CSU, and the Greens. And now we would like to know from you where you would place yourself on the scale. (1–11 scale)

Sweden, 1988

The parties are sometimes thought of as being ordered from left to right. On this card I have a kind of scale. I would like you to place the political parties on the scale. The further to the left you think a party is, the lower the number. The more on the right you think a party is, the higher the number. Where on the scale would you place yourself?

Sweden, 1991

The parties are sometimes thought of as being ordered from left to right. On this card I have a kind of scale. I would like you to place the political parties on the scale. The further to the left you think a party is, the lower the number. The further to the right you think a party is, the higher the number. Where on the scale would you place yourself?

All ideology variables coded on common 0–1 scale, where ‘0’ represents most right-wing and ‘1’ represents most left-wing.

Issue Attitudes: Major Campaign Issue

Canada, 1968

There has been quite a bit of talk recently about the possibility of Quebec separating from the rest of Canada and becoming an independent country. Are you in favour of separation or opposed to it? Please tell me whether you are strongly in favour of separation, slightly in favour, undecided, slightly opposed, or strongly opposed to separation.

Canada, 1984

Many people in the Federal Government are dishonest. Strongly agree, somewhat agree, disagree somewhat, strongly disagree, neither agree nor disagree, no opinion.

(p.159) Canada, 1988

As you know, the Mulroney government has reached a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. All things considered, do you support the agreement or do you oppose it? (support/oppose/don't know)

Canada, 1993

Respondents were randomly assigned to one of two questions regarding the deficit. Responses to both questions were incorporated into the measure.

  • On the deficit, which comes closest to your own view? One: we must reduce the deficit even if that means cutting programmes. Or Two: Governments must maintain programmes even if that means continuing to run a deficit.

  • On the deficit, which comes closest to your own view? One: governments must maintain programmes even if that means continuing to run a deficit. Or Two: We must reduce the deficit even if that means cutting programmes.

Canada, 1997

How much do you think should be done for Quebec: MORE, LESS or ABOUT THE SAME as now?

Canada, 2000

How much do you think should be done for Quebec: much more, somewhat more, about the same as now, somewhat less, much less?

Canada, 2004, 2006

To accept contributions or issue tax receipts, local riding associations of political parties must now register with Elections Canada and file yearly financial reports. Is this: a good thing, a bad thing, or do you have no opinion on this?

NES 1972

Do you think we did the right thing in getting into the fighting in Vietnam or should we have stayed out? Yes, did the right thing/No, should have stayed out/Depends.

NES 1976

Shortly after taking office, President Ford pardoned Richard Nixon for any wrong-doings he may have committed while he was President. Do you think that Ford should have pardoned Nixon? Yes/No.

NES 1980

Do you approve or disapprove of Jimmy Carter's handling of the crisis brought about by the taking of Americans as hostages in Iran? Strongly approve/not strongly approve/not strongly disapprove/strongly disapprove.

NES 1984

Some people believe that we should spend much less money for defence. Others feel that defence spending should be greatly increased. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or haven't you thought much about this? (seven-point scale)

NES 1988

There is much concern about the rapid rise in medical and hospital costs. Some people feel there should be a government insurance plan which would cover all medical and hospital expenses for everyone. Others feel that all medical expenses should be paid by individuals, and through private insurance plans like Blue Cross or other company paid plans. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or haven't you thought much about this? (seven-point scale)

(p.160) NES 1992, 1996

Next, I am going to ask you to choose which of the two statements I read comes closer to your own opinion. You might agree to some extent with both, but we want to know which one is closer to your views. One, we need a strong government to handle today's complex economic problems; or two, the free market can handle these problems without government being involved? Strong government/Free market/Both, Depends.

NES 2000

This country would have many fewer problems if there were more emphasis on traditional family ties. (Do you agree strongly, agree somewhat, neither agree nor disagree, disagree somewhat, or disagree strongly with this statement?)

NES 2004

What about war on terrorism. Should federal spending on the war on terrorism be increased, decreased, or kept about the same?

NAES 2000

Trying to stop discrimination against homosexuals—should the federal government do more about this, the same as now, less, or nothing at all?

Britain, 1983

Which of the three statements on this card comes closest to your own views on the Common Market? Britain should leave the Common Market without further ado. Britain should stay in the Common Market provided we can get better terms. Britain should stay in the Common Market anyway.

Britain, 1987

Please use this card to say whether you think the government should or should not do each of the following things, or doesn't it matter either way? Spend less on defence?

Britain, 1992

Please use this card to say whether you think the government should or should not do each of the following things, or doesn't it matter either way? Put more money into the National Health Service?

Britain, 1997

And here are three statements about the future of the pound in the European Union. Which one comes closest to your view? Replace the pound by a single currency. Use both the pound and a new European currency in Britain. Keep the pound as the only currency for Britain.

Britain, 2001

Thinking of the Single European Currency, which of the following statements on this card would come closest to your own view? Definitely join as soon as possible. Join if and when the economic conditions are right. Stay out for at least the next four or five years. Rule out on principle.

Australia, 1987

Please say whether you agree or disagree with each of these statements. Income and wealth should be distributed towards ordinary working people. Strongly agree, agree, not sure, disagree, strongly disagree.

(p.161) Australia, 1993

Here are some statements about economic issues. Please say whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with each statement. Income and wealth should be redistributed towards ordinary working people.

Australia, 1996

Please say whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with each statement. Income and wealth should be redistributed towards ordinary working people.

Australia, 1998

Please say whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with each statement. Income and wealth should be redistributed towards ordinary working people.

Australia, 2001

Do you think the number of immigrants allowed into Australia nowadays should be reduced or increased? Increased a lot, increased a little, remain about the same as it is, reduced a little, reduced a lot.

Australia, 2004

Do you think that the government should spend more or spend less on defence? Spend much more on defence, spend some more on defence, about right at present, spend less on defence, spend a lot less on defence.

New Zealand, 1999

Listed below are various areas of government spending. Please show whether you would like to see more or less government spending in each area. Remember that if you say ‘more’ or ‘much more’, it might require a tax increase to pay for it. Much more, more, same as now, less, much less, don't know.

New Zealand, 2002

Generally, do you think it should be or should not be the government's responsibility to provide or ensure free health care for everyone? Definitely should, should, shouldn't, definitely shouldn't, don't know.

Germany, 1980

Now I would be interested to know what importance some problems have for you personally. Here is a ladder: on the top rung would be the problem which is most important to you. At the bottom would be a problem which may be significant otherwise but which has no importance for you personally. Please show me on the ladder how important—is for you. Secure Jobs (1–10 scale)

Germany, 1987

Here we have put together several tasks and goals which are being talked about in the Federal Republic. Please tell us for each of these issues whether you personally consider it to be very important, important, not so important, or completely unimportant. Fight unemployment.

Sweden, 1988

I will now read to you a list of policies, which some people think ought to be implemented in Sweden. For each of them, please say if it is: very good proposal, fairly good proposal, neither good nor bad proposal, fairly bad proposal, very bad proposal. Reduce the public sector.

Sweden, 1991

I will now read to you a list of policies, which some people think ought to be implemented in Sweden. For each of them, please say if it is: very good proposal, fairly good proposal, neither good nor bad proposal, fairly bad proposal, very bad proposal. Reduce the public sector.

(p.162) All issue attitudes coded on common 0–1 scale, where ‘0’ represents most conservative/reactionary perspective and ‘1’ represents most liberal/progressive perspective.

Issue Attitudes: Taxes versus Spending

Canada, 1968

In deciding what to do about voting in this election, was medicare extremely important to you, very important, fairly important, or not too important?

Canada, 1984

Here are some opinions that different people hold. As I read each statement, I would like you to tell me whether you agree or disagree with it, and how much. However, tell me if you have no opinion on the matter. It is not the responsibility of government to ensure jobs for unemployed Canadians. Strongly agree/Somewhat agree/Disagree somewhat/Strongly Disagree/Neither Agree nor Disagree.

Canada, 1988

Most experts argue that if we want more government services we must increase taxes and if we want lower taxes we must reduce services. If you HAD TO CHOOSE, should the level of taxes and services be MUCH HIGHER, SOMEWHAT HIGHER, ABOUT THE SAME, SOMEWHAT LOWER, or MUCH LOWER than now?

Canada, 1993

Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three questions. Responses to all three questions were combined to create the taxes versus spending variable.

  • Would you personally be willing to pay higher taxes to maintain our social programmes?

  • Would you personally be willing to pay higher taxes to maintain our social programmes such as health care?

  • Would you personally be willing to pay higher taxes to maintain our social programmes such as welfare? 〈yes, pay more taxes/no, not pay more taxes/it depends〉

Canada, 1997

We face tough choices. Cutting taxes means cutting social programmes and improving social programmes means increasing taxes. If you had to choose, would you cut taxes, increase taxes, or keep taxes as they are?

Canada, 2000

How would YOU spend the federal budget surplus? Would your FIRST priority be improving social programmes, cutting taxes, or reducing the debt?

Canada, 2004, 2006

And now taxes. Keep in mind that cutting taxes means spending less in some areas. Should personal income taxes be increased, decreased, or kept about the same as now?

NES, 1972, 1976, 1980

Some people feel that the government in Washington should see to it that every person has a job and a good standard of living. Others think the government should just let each person get ahead on his/their own. And of course, some other people have opinions somewhere in between. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or haven't you thought much about this? (seven-point scale)

(p.163) NES, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000

Some people think the government should provide fewer services, even in areas such as health care and education, in order to reduce spending. Other people feel that it is important for the government to provide many more services even if it means an increase in spending. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or haven't you thought much about this? (seven-point scale)

NES, 2004

Do you favour cuts in spending on domestic programmes such as medicare, education, and highways in order to cut the taxes paid by ordinary Americans? Yes/No.

NAES, 2000

Which do you personally think is more important, cutting taxes or strengthening the Social Security system?

Britain, 1983

Please look at this card. People who are convinced that we should put up taxes a lot and spend much more on health and social services will put a tick in the last box on the left, while those who are convinced that we should cut taxes a lot and spend much less on health and social services will put a tick in the last box on the right. So, just as before, people who hold views that come somewhere in between those two positions will tick a box somewhere along here or somewhere along here. First, would you tick the box anywhere along the scale that comes closest to your own views about taxes and government spending? (twenty-point scale)

Britain, 1987

Please look at this card. Some people feel that government should put up taxes a lot and spend much more on health and social services. These people would put themselves in Box A. Other people feel that government should cut taxes a lot and spend much less on health and social services. These people would put themselves in Box K. And other people have views somewhere in-between, along here or along here. In the first row of boxes, please tick whichever box comes closest to your own views about taxes and government spending? (ten-point scale)

Britain, 1992

Please look at this card. Some people feel that government should put up taxes a lot and spend much more on health and social services. These people would put themselves in Box A. Other people feel that government should cut taxes a lot and spend much less on health and social services. These people would put themselves in Box K. And other people have views somewhere in-between, along here or along here. In the first row of boxes, please tick whichever box comes closest to your own views about taxes and government spending? (eleven-point scale)

Britain, 1997

Suppose the government had to choose between these three options, which do you think it should choose? Reduce taxes and spend less on health, education, and social benefits, or keep taxes and spending on these services at the same level as now, or increase taxes and spend more on health, education, and social benefits?

Britain, 2001

On a scale from 0 to 10, where ‘0’ means government should cut taxes a lot and spend much less on health and social services, and ‘10’ means government should raise taxes a lot and spend much more, where would you put the views of yourself?

(p.164) Australia, 1987

If government had a choice about reducing taxes or spending more on social services, which do you think it should do? Strongly favour reducing taxes, mildly favour reducing taxes, it depends, mildly favour spending more on social services, strongly favour spending more on social services.

Australia, 1993

If the government had a choice between reducing taxes or spending more on social services, which do you think it should do? Strongly favour reducing taxes, mildly favour reducing taxes, it depends, mildly favour spending more on social services, strongly favour spending more on social services.

Australia, 1996

If the government had a choice between reducing taxes or spending more on social services, which do you think it should do? Strongly favour reducing taxes, mildly favour reducing taxes, it depends, mildly favour spending more on social services, strongly favour spending more on social services.

Australia, 1998

If the government had a choice between reducing taxes or spending more on social services, which do you think it should do? Strongly favour reducing taxes, mildly favour reducing taxes, it depends, mildly favour spending more on social services, strongly favour spending more on social services.

Australia, 2001

If the government had a choice between reducing taxes or spending more on social services, which do you think it should do? Strongly favour reducing taxes, mildly favour reducing taxes, it depends, mildly favour spending more on social services, strongly favour spending more on social services.

Australia, 2004

If the government had a choice between reducing taxes or spending more on social services, which do you think it should do? Strongly favour reducing taxes, mildly favour reducing taxes, it depends, mildly favour spending more on social services, strongly favour spending more on social services.

New Zealand, 1999

ONE represents the view that the government should reduce taxes, and SEVEN the view that there should be a tax increase so government can spend more money on health and education. Where would you place your view? (1–7 scale)

New Zealand, 2002

ONE represents the view that the government should reduce taxes and people should pay more for their own health and education, and SEVEN the view that there should be a tax increase so the government can spend more money on health and education. Where would you place your view? (1–7 scale)

Germany, 1980

Now I would be interested to know what importance some problems have for you personally. Here is a ladder: on the top rung would be the problem which is most important to you. At the bottom would be a problem which may be significant otherwise but which has no importance for you personally. Please show me on the ladder how important—is for you. Reducing Taxes. (1–10 scale)

Germany, 1987

Here we have put together several tasks and goals which are being talked about in the Federal Republic. Please tell us for each of these issues whether you personally consider it to be very important, important, not so important, or completely unimportant. Reduce Taxes.

(p.165) Sweden, 1988

I will now read to you a list of policies, which some people think ought to be implemented in Sweden. For each of them, please say if it is: very good proposal, fairly good proposal, neither good nor bad proposal, fairly bad proposal, very bad proposal. Lower tax rate on high income.

Sweden, 1991

I will now read to you a list of policies, which some people think ought to be implemented in Sweden. For each of them, please say if it is: very good proposal, fairly good proposal, neither good nor bad proposal, fairly bad proposal, very bad proposal. Reduce social benefits.

All issue attitudes coded on common 0–1 scale, where ‘0’ represents most conservative/reactionary perspective and ‘1’ represents most liberal/progressive perspective.

Issue Attitudes: Social Liberalism

Canada, 1968

Now, once again I should like to read some short statements about Canada and I would like you to tell me whether you agree or disagree with each. Please tell me whether you agree strongly, agree mildly, disagree mildly, or disagree strongly.

Homosexuals should be imprisoned.

Canada, 1984

Here are some opinions that different people hold. As I read each statement, I would like you to tell me whether you agree or disagree with it, and how much. However, tell me if you have no opinion on the matter. The decision to have an abortion should be the responsibility of the pregnant woman. Strongly agree/Somewhat agree/Disagree somewhat/Strongly Disagree/Neither Agree nor Disagree.

Canada, 1988

Respondents were randomly assigned to one of two abortion questions. Responses to both questions were combined to create the social liberalism variable.

  • According to the Supreme Court, the Charter of Rights says that governments cannot make abortions absolutely illegal. Now we would like to get your views on abortion. We know that this is a sensitive question. Of the following three positions, which is closest to your own opinion: one, abortion should NEVER be permitted, two, should be permitted only after need has been established by a doctor, or three, should be a matter of the woman's personal choice?

  • According to the Supreme Court, the Charter of Rights says that governments cannot make abortions absolutely illegal. Now we would like to get your views on abortion. We know that this is a sensitive question. Of the following three positions, which is closest to your own opinion: one, abortion should be a matter of the woman's personal choice, two, abortion should be permitted only after need has been established by a doctor, or three, should never be permitted?

Canada, 1993, 1997

Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three abortion questions. Responses to all three questions were combined to create the social liberalism variable.

  • Now we would like to get your views on abortion. Of the following three positions, which is closest to your own opinion: one: abortion should NEVER be permitted, two: should be permitted only after NEED has been established by a doctor, or three: should be a matter of the woman's PERSONAL CHOICE.

  • (p.166) Now we would like to get your views on abortion. Of the following three positions, which is closest to your own opinion: one, abortion should be permitted only after NEED has been established by a doctor; two, should be a matter of the woman's PERSONAL CHOICE; or three, should NEVER be permitted?

  • Now we would like to get your views on abortion. Of the following three positions, which is closest to your own opinion: one, abortion should be a matter of the woman's PERSONAL CHOICE; two, abortion should NEVER be permitted; or three,: should be permitted only after NEED has been established by a doctor?

Canada, 2000

And now a question on abortion: do you think it should be: very easy, quite easy, quite difficult, very difficult for women to get an abortion?

Canada, 2004, 2006

Do you think it should be: very easy for women to get an abortion, quite easy, quite difficult, or very difficult?

NES, 1972, 1976

There has been some discussion about abortion during recent years. Which one of the opinions on this page best agrees with your view? Abortion should never be permitted. Abortion should be permitted only if the life and health of the woman is in danger. Abortion should be permitted if, due to personal reasons, the woman would have difficulty in caring for the child. Abortion should never be forbidden, since one should not require a woman to have a child she does not want.

NES, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004

There has been some discussion about abortion during recent years. Which one of the opinions on this page best agrees with your view? By law, abortion should never be permitted. The law should permit abortion only in case of rape, incest, or when the woman's life is in danger. The law should permit abortion for reasons other than rape, incest, or danger to the woman's life, but only after the need for abortion has been clearly established. By law, a woman should always be able to obtain an abortion as a matter of personal choice.

NAES, 2000

Make it harder for a woman to get an abortion—should the federal government do this or not? Yes/No.

Britain, 1983

Finally on election issues, I want to ask about some changes that have been happening in Britain over the years. For each one I read out can you say whether you think it has gone too far, not gone far enough, or is it about right. The availability of abortion on the National Health Services?

Britain, 1987

And now I want to ask about some changes that have been happening in Britain over the years. For each one I read out, please use this card to say whether you think it has gone too far nor not gone far enough. The availability of abortion on the National Health Service?

Britain, 1992

And now I want to ask about some changes that have been happening in Britain over the years. For each one I read out, please use this card to say whether you think it has gone too far nor not gone far enough. The availability of abortion on the National Health Service?

(p.167) Britain, 1997

Please tick one box for each statement below to show how much you agree or disagree with it. Homosexual relations are always wrong. (Strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, disagree strongly).

Britain, 2001

Please tell me how far you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Violent criminals deserve to be deprived of some of their human rights. (Strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly disagree).

Australia, 1987

Do you think that women should be able to obtain an abortion easily when they want one, or do you think abortion should be allowed only in special circumstances? Obtain abortion easily, special circumstances only, no abortion under any circumstances.

Australia, 1993

Which one of these statements comes closest to how you feel about abortion in Australia? Women should be able to obtain an abortion readily when they want one. Abortion should be allowed only in special circumstances. Abortions should not be allowed under any circumstances.

Australia, 1996

Which one of these statements comes closest to how you feel about abortion in Australia? Women should be able to obtain an abortion readily when they want one. Abortion should be allowed only in special circumstances. Abortions should not be allowed under any circumstances.

Australia, 1998

Which one of these statements comes closest to how you feel about abortion in Australia? Women should be able to obtain an abortion readily when they want one. Abortion should be allowed only in special circumstances. Abortions should not be allowed under any circumstances.

Australia, 2001

Which one of these statements comes closest to how you feel about abortion in Australia? Women should be able to obtain an abortion readily when they want one. Abortion should be allowed only in special circumstances. Abortions should not be allowed under any circumstances.

Australia, 2004

Which one of these statements comes closest to how you feel about abortion in Australia? Women should be able to obtain an abortion readily when they want one. Abortion should be allowed only in special circumstances. Abortions should not be allowed under any circumstances.

New Zealand, 1999

Do you think the number of immigrants allowed into New Zealand nowadays should be increased a lot, increased a little, remain about the same as it is, reduced a little, reduced a lot, don't know.

New Zealand, 2002

Do you think the number of immigrants allowed into New Zealand nowadays should be increased a lot, increased a little, remain about the same as it is, reduced a little, reduced a lot, don't know.

Germany, 1980

Now, when you consider the development of our society what would be particularly important to you? Please use this scale and tell us for each goal on this list how important it is to you. Christian values should be more strongly observed in marriage, family, and society. (1–7 scale)

(p.168) Germany, 1987

Although there is a statutory regulation governing termination of pregnancy, the subject never ceases to be discussed. We have listed a number of possible rulings here and would ask you to tell us which one of them you favour. Termination of pregnancy should not be allowed at all. Termination of pregnancy should be allowed only in cases where health is endangered. Termination of pregnancy should be allowed not only where health is endangered but also in cases of social hardship. Termination of pregnancy should be allowed without restriction.

Sweden, 1988

I will now read to you a list of policies, which some people think ought to be implemented in Sweden. For each of them, please say if it is: very good proposal, fairly good proposal, neither good nor bad proposal, fairly bad proposal, very bad proposal. Accept fewer refugees into Sweden.

Sweden, 1991

I will now read to you a list of policies, which some people think ought to be implemented in Sweden. For each of them, please say if it is: very good proposal, fairly good proposal, neither good nor bad proposal, fairly bad proposal, very bad proposal. Restrict the rights to free abortion.

All issue attitudes coded on common 0–1 scale, where ‘0’ represents most conservative/reactionary perspective and ‘1’ represents most liberal/progressive perspective.

Political Sophistication

Canada, 1968

Some people do not pay much attention to elections. How about you—would you say that you were very much interested, somewhat interested, or not much interested in last June's election?

Canada, 1984

Do you pay much attention to politics generally—that is, from day to day, when there is not a big election campaign going on? Would you say that you follow politics very closely, fairly closely, or not much at all?

Canada, 1988

We would like to know whether you pay much attention to politics GENERALLY, whether there is an election going on or not. Would you say that you follow politics VERY CLOSELY, FAIRLY CLOSELY, NOT VERY CLOSELY, or NOT AT ALL?

Canada, 1993

Interviewer rating.

Canada, 1997

Eight Questions form knowledge index:

  • We would like to see how widely known some political figures are. Do you recall the name of the President of the United States?

  • The Minister of Finance of Canada?

  • The name of the provincial Premier?

  • The first woman to be Prime Minister of Canada?

  • Do you happen to remember which party promised to lower personal income taxes by TEN percent?

  • And which party promised to cut unemployment in half by year 2001?

  • (p.169) And do you remember which party said all provinces should be treated equally?

  • And which party was against recognizing Quebec as a distinct society?

Canada, 2000

Twelve Questions form knowledge index:

  • We're wondering how well known the federal party leaders are. Do you happen to recall the name of the leader of the Federal NDP?

  • And the leader of the Federal Conservative Party?

  • The leader of the Alliance Party?

  • The leader of the Federal Liberal Party?

  • Do you happen to remember which party is promising a single tax rate for people earning less than one hundred thousand dollars a year?

  • Do you remember which party is proposing a national prescription drug plan?

  • Do you happen to recall which party is proposing a law to pay back the debt in 25 years?

  • We would like to see how widely known some political figures are. Do you recall the name of the Premier of your Province?

  • Do you recall the name of the minister of Finance of Canada?

  • The Prime Minister of Canada at the time of the Free Trade Agreement with the United States?

  • And do you happen to know the capital of the United States?

  • Do you happen to recall which party is saying that high taxes have produced a brain drain from Canada to the United States?

Canada, 2004

Thirteen Questions form knowledge index:

  • We are wondering how well known the federal party leaders are. Do you happen to recall the name of the leader of the Federal NDP?

  • The leader of the Federal Conservative Party?

  • The leader of the Federal Liberal Party?

  • Do you happen to recall which party is promising to get rid of the gun registry?

  • And which party is promising to do away with the Federal Sales Tax on family essentials?

  • Which party is promising to increase military spending by 2 billion dollars each year?

  • Which party is promising to spend 250 million for fighting AIDS in poor countries?

  • Do you happen to recall which party is promising to spend 4 billion dollars to reduce waiting times for surgeries?

  • Which party is promising an inheritance tax on estates over 1 million dollars?

  • We would like to see how widely known some political figures are. Do you happen to recall the name of the Premier of your province?

  • Do you happen to recall the name of the Minister of Finance of Canada?

  • And the name of the British Prime Minister?

  • The name of the female cabinet minister who ran against Paul Martin for the leadership of the Liberal Party?

Canada, 2006

Six Questions form knowledge index:

We're wondering how well known the federal party leaders are. Do you happen to recall the leader of the federal NDP?

  • The leader of the federal Liberal Party?

  • The leader of the federal Conservative Party?

  • We would like to see how widely known some political figures are. Do you happen to recall the name of the Premier of your province?

  • (p.170) The name of the British Prime Minister?

  • The name of a female cabinet minister in the federal government?

NES, all years, NAES 2000

Interviewer rating.

Britain, 1983

Broadcast exposure index made up of two items:

  • Did you watch and listen to any Party election broadcasts on television or radio? (Yes/No)

  • Did you read any newspaper articles about the election campaign? (Yes/No)

Britain, 1987

Broadcast exposure index made up of two items:

  • Did you watch and listen to any Party election broadcasts on television or radio? (Yes/No)

  • Did you read any newspaper articles about the election campaign? (Yes/No)

Britain, 1992

Eleven questions form knowledge index:

Here is a quick quiz. For each thing I say, tell me if it is true or false. If you do not know, just say so and we will skip to the next one.

  • The leader of the Labour Party is Neil Kinnock.

  • The number of members of parliament is about 100.

  • The longest time allowed between general elections is four years.

  • Britain's electoral system is based on proportional representation.

  • MPs from different parties are on parliamentary committees.

  • No-one is allowed to be on the electoral register in two different places.

  • Britain has separate elections for the European Parliament and the British Parliament.

  • Women are not allowed to sit in the House of Lords.

  • British prime ministers are appointed by the Queen.

  • No-one may stand for parliament unless they pay a deposit. Ministers of State are senior to Secretaries of State in the government.

Britain, 1997

How much interest do you generally have in what is going on in politics…a great deal, quite a lot, some, not very much, or, none at all?

Britain, 2001

On a scale of 0–10 how much attention do you generally pay to politics?

Australia, 1987

How much interest do you usually have in what's going on in politics? A good deal, some, not much, none.

Australia, 1993

Generally speaking, how much interest do you usually have in what's going on in politics? A good deal, some, not much, none.

Australia, 1996

Nine questions form knowledge index:

(p.171) And finally, a quick quiz on Australian government. For each of the following statements, please say whether it is true or false. If you do not know the answer, just circle ‘3’ and try the next one.

  • John Howard is the leader of the Liberal party

  • There are 75 members of the House of Representatives

  • Australia became a federation in 1901

  • The Constitution can only be changed by the High Court

  • No-one may stand for Federal parliament unless they pay a deposit

  • The longest time allowed between Federal elections for the House of Representatives is four years

  • Parliament must be consulted before Australia signs a treaty

  • The Senate election is based on proportional representation

Australia, 1998

Generally speaking, how much interest do you usually have in what's going on in politics? A good deal, some, not much, none.

Australia, 2001

Six questions form knowledge index:

And finally, a quick quiz on Australian government. For each of the following statements, please say whether it is true or false. If you do not know the answer, just circle ‘3’ and try the next one.

  • Australia became a federation in 1901

  • There are 75 members of the House of Representatives

  • The Constitution can only be changed by the High Court

  • The Senate election is based on proportional representation

  • No-one may stand for Federal parliament unless they pay a deposit

  • The longest time allowed between Federal elections for the House of Representatives is four years

Australia, 2004

Nine questions form knowledge index:

  • Now a few questions about your interest and knowledge of politics. If you do not know the answer, just indicate that and move on to the next one. First, looking at the list below, can you give the name of the Federal Treasurer before the 2004 Federal election?

  • Can you say which political party has the second largest number of seats in the House of Representatives, following the 2004 Federal election?

  • Obviously, a person on a low income will pay less total money in income tax than someone on a high income. But do you think that a person on a low income pays…a bigger proportion of their earnings in income tax than someone on a high income, the same proportion, or a smaller proportion of their earnings in income tax?

  • Five countries have permanent seats on the Security Council of the United Nations. Can you give the names of any of these five countries?

  • Which of the following best describes who is entitled to vote in elections for the House of Representatives?

  • A prominent Australian politician was given the nickname ‘Pig-Iron Bob’. Who was the politician?

  • Which political party was formed by a former Liberal Party minister?

  • Prior to the 2004 Federal election, who was the most recent Australian Labor Party Prime Minister?

New Zealand, 1999

Six questions form knowledge index:

  • Now, here is a quick quiz on New Zealand government. For each of the following statements, please say whether it is true or false. If you do not know the answer, put a tick under ‘don't know’ and try the next.

    (p.172)
    • The term of Parliament is four years

    • Cabinet Ministers must be MPs

    • The New Zealand Parliament once had an Upper House

  • Here are some other statements about MMP. Do you think that they are true, or false?

    • Voting under MMP is like two separate elections, one for the electorate seats and one for the party list seats

    • The party votes usually decide the total number of seats each party gets in Parliament

    • A party that wins less than 5 per cent of the party vote and wins no electorates at all cannot win any seats

New Zealand, 2002

Six questions form knowledge index:

  • Now, here is a quick quiz on New Zealand government. For each of the following statements, please say whether it is true or false. If you do not know the answer, put a tick under ‘don't know’ and try the next.

    • The term of Parliament is four years

    • Enrolling as a voter in New Zealand is compulsory

    • Since 1981 National has been in government for at least five more years than Labour

  • Here are some other statements about MMP. Do you think that they are true, or false?

    • Voting under MMP is like two separate elections, one for the electorate seats and one for the party list seats

    • The party votes usually decide the total number of seats each party gets in Parliament

    • The party with the most votes is more likely to get the most seats under MMP than under first past the post

Germany, 1980

Quite generally, are you interested in politics? Yes, not particularly, not at all. (If R is interested in politics) How strongly are you interested in politics: very strongly, strongly, or not so strongly?

Germany, 1987

Quite generally, are you interested in politics? Yes, not particularly, not at all. (If R is interested in politics) How strongly are you interested in politics: very strongly, strongly, or not so strongly?

Sweden, 1988

Ten questions form knowledge index:

  • Here is a list of names of different persons. Can you tell me which party each of the people belongs to?

    • Birgit Friggebo

    • Thage G. Peterson

    • Karl Erik Olsson

    • Lars Tobisson

    • Eva Goes

  • On this card there are a few statements. Could you, for each of them, say if it is true or false. If you are not sure, you can say that you do not know if the statement is true or false.

    • Today's sick benefit is 90 per cent of income for most people

    • There is a wage earner's fund in each country

    • The rate of unemployment in Sweden today is less than 5 per cent

    • Price increases (inflation) have so far in 1988 been over 9 per cent

    • (p.173) It has been decided in parliament that the most toxic radio-active waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants shall be stored abroad

Sweden, 1991

Thirteen questions form knowledge index:

  • Here is a list of names of different persons. Can you tell me which party each of the people belongs to?

    • Birgit Friggebo

    • Goran Persson

    • Karl Erik Olsson

    • Lars Tobisson

    • Eva Goes

    • Gudrun Schyman

  • On this card there are a few statements. Could you, for each of them, say if it is true or false. If you are not sure, you can say that you do not know if the statement is true or false.

    • Today's sick benefit is 90 per cent of the income for most people

    • There is a wage earner's fund in each country

    • The Swedish Parliament has 349 members

    • The rate of unemployment in Sweden is at the moment less than 5 per cent

    • Last year, Sweden accepted more than 50,000 refugees from other countries

    • It has been decided in Parliament that the most toxic radio-active waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants shall be stored abroad

    • Denmark is a member of the EC

Traits

Canada, 1968

  • Now I am going to read you a list of things often said about Mr Trudeau. I would like your reaction to them. In each case please tell me whether you agree with the statement or whether you disagree. If you do not know, just say so.

    • Mr Trudeau is intelligent.

    • Mr Trudeau is fair-minded.

    • Mr Trudeau is honest.

  • What about these statements sometimes made about Mr Stanfield? Do you agree, disagree, or don't you know?

    • He is highly intelligent.

    • He is fair-minded.

    • He is honest.

Canada, 1984

Now we would like to know your impressions of what certain political leaders are like. I will read a word or phrase, and I would like you to tell me how well it fits or describes each of the three leaders shown on this card. The more you think the word or phrase describes a leader, the closer your answer should be to ‘7’. The less it fits, the closer your answer should be to ‘1’. If you have no idea at all about how a word or phrase fits a leader, tell me and we will go on to the next one. First, in your opinion how well does the word ‘arrogant’ describe Turner? Which number on the scale gives the best idea (p.174) of how you see him? Now, what about Brian Mulroney—which number on the scale gives the best idea of how you see him? Ed Broadbent?

List of all traits: arrogant, competent, ruthless, commands respect, nervous, decent, slick, sincere, shallow, sure of himself, dull, warm.

Canada, 1988

Now, we would like to know about your impressions of the party leaders. I am going to read you a list of words and phrases people use to describe political figures. After each one, I would like you to tell me how much the word or phrase fits your impression. How much would you say ‘intelligent’ fits your impression of Brian Mulroney: a great deal, somewhat, a little, or not at all? List of all traits: intelligent, trustworthy, man of vision, compassionate, knowledgeable, moral, provides strong leadership, really cares about people like you.

Canada, 1993

Now, we would like to know about your impressions of the party leaders. I would like you to tell me how well the following words fit each leader. Does ‘intelligent’ describe Kim Campbell: VERY well, FAIRLY well, NOT VERY well, or NOT AT ALL?

List of all traits: intelligent, arrogant, trustworthy, provides strong leadership, compassionate, aggressive.

Canada, 1997

Now, we would like to get your impressions of the party leaders. I would like you to tell me how well the following words fit each leader. What about Jean Charest. Does ‘strong leader’ describe Jean Charest: VERY well, FAIRLY well, NOT VERY well, or NOT AT ALL?

List of all traits: strong leadership, trustworthy, arrogant, compassionate, in touch with the times.

Canada, 2000

Which leader would you describe as arrogant?

List of all traits: arrogant, trustworthy, new ideas, compassionate, dishonest, intelligent, weak.

Canada, 2004

Traits questions were posed in two different question formats.

We want to ask you how honest each party leader is. On a scale from 0 to 10 where ‘10’ means very honest and ‘0’ means very Dishonest, how honest do you think the leaders are?

List of all traits: honest, competent.

Which federal party leader would you describe as arrogant?

List of all traits: arrogant, intelligent, caring, cannot be trusted.

Canada, 2006

We want to ask you how honest each party leader is. On a scale from 0 to 10, where ‘0’ means very Dishonest and ‘10’ means very honest, how honest do you think the leaders are?

List of all traits: honest, competent.

NES, 1972

Now I would like you to think about a set of statements I will make about some important political figures. For each statement, I want you to tell me how strongly you agree or disagree, using the seven-point scale I am giving you. If you agree completely, you would pick position number 1; if you disagree completely, you would pick position number 7. Of course, you could also pick any of the numbered positions in between. The first set of statements concerns Richard Nixon.

(p.175)

  • Nixon, as President, could be trusted.

  • Nixon has the kind of personality a President ought to have.

The next set of statements concerns George McGovern.

  • McGovern, as President, could be trusted.

  • McGovern has the kind of personality a President ought to have.

NES, 1976

Now I would like you to think about a set of statements I will make about the two major candidates for president. For each statement, I want you to tell me how strongly you agree or disagree, using this seven-point scale. If you agree completely, you would pick position number 1; if you disagree completely you would pick position number 7. Of course, you could also pick any of the numbered positions in between. The first set of statements concerns Gerald Ford.

  • Ford, as President, could be trusted.

  • Ford has the kind of personality a President ought to have.

The next set of statements concerns Jimmy Carter.

  • Carter, as President, could be trusted.

  • Carter has the kind of personality a President ought to have.

NES, 1980

I am going to read a list of words and phrases people use to describe political figures. For each, please tell me whether the word of phrase describes the candidate I name extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all. Think about Jimmy Carter. The first word on our list is ‘moral’. In your opinion, does the word ‘moral’ describe Carter extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: moral, dishonest, weak, knowledgeable, power-hungry, inspiring, provide strong leadership.

NES, 1984

I am going to read a list of words and phrases people use to describe political figures. For each, please tell me whether the word of phrase describes the candidate I name. Think about Ronald Reagan. The first phrase is ‘hard-working’. In your opinion does the phrase ‘hard-working’ describe Reagan extremely well, quite well, not too well, nor not well at all?

List of all traits: hard-working, decent, compassionate, commands respect, intelligent, moral, kind, inspiring, knowledgeable, sets a good example, really cares about people like you, understands people like you, fair, in touch with ordinary people, religious.

NES, 1988

In your opinion does the phrase ‘intelligent’ describe Ronald Reagan extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: intelligent, compassionate, moral, inspiring, provides strong leadership, decent, really cares about people like you, knowledgeable, honest.

NES, 1992

I am going to read a list of words and phrases people may use to describe political figures. For each, tell me whether the word or phrase describes the candidate I name. Think about George Bush. In your opinion does the phrase ‘he is intelligent’ describe George Bush extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: intelligent, compassionate, moral, inspiring, provides strong leadership, really cares about people like you, knowledgeable, honest, gets things done.

(p.176) NES, 1996

I am going to read a list of words and phrases people may use to describe political figures. For each, tell me whether the word or phrase describes the candidate I name. Think about Bill Clinton. In your opinion does the phrase, ‘he is intelligent’ describe Bill Clinton extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: intelligent, moral, inspiring, provides strong leadership, compassionate, honest, knowledgeable, really cares about people like you, gets things done.

NES, 2000

I am going to read a list of words and phrases people may use to describe political figures. For each, tell me whether the word or phrase describes the candidate I name. Think about Al Gore. In your opinion does the phrase, ‘he is intelligent’ describe Al Gore extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: moral, really cares about people like you, knowledgeable, provides strong leadership, dishonest, intelligent, out of touch with ordinary people.

NES, 2004

I am going to read a list of words and phrases people may use to describe political figures. For each, tell me whether the word or phrase describes the candidate I name. Think about George W. Bush. In your opinion does the phrase, ‘he is intelligent’ describe George W. Bush extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: moral, provides strong leadership, really cares about people like you, knowledgeable, intelligent, dishonest, indecisive.

NAES, 2000

Does the phrase ‘really cares about people like me’ describe George W. Bush extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: really cares about people like me, honest, inspiring, knowledgeable, hypocritical, trustworthy, provides strong leadership.

Britain, 1983

Still thinking of these four Party leaders: at the time of the general election, which one do you think would have been the prime minister most likely to get things done? The one most in touch with ordinary peoples' problems?

Which of the qualities on this card would you say Mrs Thatcher has: choose as many as you think apply? Traits: caring, determined, shrewd, likeable as a person, tough, listens to reason, decisive, sticks to principles.

Britain, 1987

Now some similar questions, but this time about some of the main party leaders. Would you describe Mrs Thatcher as good at getting things done or bad at getting things done?

List of all traits: Good at getting things done, capable of being a strong leader, caring, likeable as a person.

Britain, 1992

Now some similar questions, but this time about some of the main party leaders. Would you describe John Major as capable of being a strong leader or not capable of being a strong leader?

List of all traits: capable of being a strong leader, caring.

(p.177) Britain, 1997

Now some questions about the Prime Minister. On the whole would you describe Tony Blair as capable of being a strong leader or not capable of being a strong leader?

List of all traits: capable of being a strong leader, caring, decisive, sticks to his principles, keeps his promises, listens to reason.

Britain, 2001

Now, some questions about the party leaders. On the whole, would you describe Tony Blair as capable of being a strong leader or not capable of being a strong leader?

List of traits: capable of being a strong leader, keeps his promises.

And on the whole, would you describe Tony Blair as caring or not caring?

List of traits: decisive, someone who sticks to his principles, listens to reason, arrogant.

Australia, 1987

Which of the following qualities would you say Mr Hawke has? Circle as many as you think he has. And how about Mr Howard and Mr Sinclair?

List of all traits: caring, determined, shrewd, likeable as a person, tough, listens to reason, decisive, sticks to principles, sincere.

Australia, 1993

Here is a list of words and phrases people use to describe party leaders. For each word or phrase please say how well you feel it describes the leader. Thinking first about Paul Keating, in your opinion how well does each of these describe him—extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: moral, intelligent, compassionate, sensible, provides strong leadership, decent, reliable, knowledgeable, inspiring, dependable.

Australia, 1996

Here is a list of words and phrases people use to describe party leaders. Thinking first of Paul Keating, in your opinion how well does each of these describe him—extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: moral, intelligent, compassionate, sensible, provides strong leadership, honest, reliable, knowledgeable, inspiring, dependable, arrogant.

Australia, 1998

Here is a list of words and phrases people use to describe party leaders. Thinking first of John Howard, in your opinion how well does each of these describe him—extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: moral, intelligent, compassionate, sensible, provides strong leadership, honest, reliable, knowledgeable, inspiring, dependable.

Australia, 2001

Here is a list of words and phrases people use to describe party leaders. Thinking first about John Howard, in your opinion how well does each of these describe him—extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

List of all traits: intelligent, compassionate, sensible, provides strong leadership, honest, knowledgeable, inspiring, trustworthy.

Australia, 2004

Here is a list of words and phrases people use to describe party leaders. Thinking first about John Howard, in your opinion how well does each of these describe him—extremely well, quite well, not too well, or not well at all?

(p.178) List of all traits: intelligent, compassionate, sensible, provides strong leadership, honest, knowledgeable, inspiring, trustworthy.

New Zealand, 1999

How well does ‘provides strong leadership’ describe the following party leaders? Very well, fairly well, not very well, not at all, don't know.

List of all traits: provides strong leadership, trustworthy, arrogant, compassionate,

New Zealand, 2002

How well do the following descriptions apply to the two main party leaders? Very well, fairly well, not very well, not at all, don't know.

List of all traits: provides strong leadership, trustworthy, arrogant.

Germany, 1980

We have collected here some characteristics which a chancellor can have. To the left and to the right of the scale are opposite attributes. Please mark which characteristics Helmut Schmidt has, in your opinion. Mark the scale position which best fits Schmidt. The more the left or right attribute fits, the further to the left or right you should put your mark.

List of all traits: responsible/irresponsible, arrogant/modest, dynamic/hesitating, trustworthy/untrustworthy, ill-tempered/calm.

Germany, 1987

We have collected here some characteristics which a chancellor can have. To the left and to the right of the scale are opposite attributes. Please mark which characteristics Helmut Kohl has, in your opinion. Mark the scale position which best fits Schmidt. The more the left or right attribute fits, the further to the left or right you should put your mark.

List of all traits: responsible/irresponsible, arrogant/modest, dynamic/hesitating, trustworthy/untrustworthy, ill-tempered/calm.

Sweden, 1988

We will continue with party leaders. I will now read a few words and expressions which can be used to describe different attributes of the party leaders. I would like you to tell how appropriate you think each of them is. We begin with Ingvar Carlsson. Thinking about Ingvar Carlsson, how appropriate do you consider the following statement? (very appropriate, fairly appropriate, fairly inappropriate, very inappropriate).

List of traits: reliable, inspiring, knowledgeable, knows the thoughts and opinions of ordinary people.

Sweden, 1991

We will continue with party leaders. I will now read a few words and expressions which can be used to describe different attributes of the party leaders. I would like you to tell how appropriate you think each of them is, when you think of Invgar Carlsson, Carl Bildt and Ian Wachtmeister. We will only include the leaders of the two biggest parties and the leader of the new party, New Democracy. Thinking about…How appropriate do you consider the following statement? (very appropriate, fairly appropriate, fairly inappropriate, very inappropriate).

List of all traits: reliable, inspiring, knowledgeable, knows the thoughts and opinions of ordinary people.

(p.179) Vote Choice

Canada, 1968

Which party did you vote for?

Canada, 1984

For which party did you vote?

Canada, 1988

Which party did you vote for: the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, or another party?

Canada, 1993

Which party did you vote for: the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, 〈the Bloc Quebecois/Reform Party〉, or another party?

Canada, 1997

Which party did you vote for: the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party, the New Democratic Party, 〈the Bloc Quebecois/Reform party〉, or another party?

Canada, 2000

Which party did you vote for?

Canada, 2004, 2006

Which party did you vote for, the Liberals, Conservatives, NDP, Bloc Quebecois, or another party?

NES, 1972, 1976

Who did you vote for in the election for President?

NES, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004

How about in the election for President? Did you vote for a candidate for President? (if yes) Who did you vote for?

NAES, 2000

For president, did you vote [in the general election] for George W. Bush, the Republican; Al Gore, the Democrat, Pat Buchanan of the Reform Party; Ralph Nader of the Green Party; or someone else?

Britain, 1983

Which party did you vote for in the general election?

Britain, 1987

Which party did you vote for in the general election?

Britain, 1992

Which party did you vote for in the general election?

Britain, 1997

Which party did you vote for in the general election?

(p.180) Britain, 2001

Which party did you vote for in the general election?

Australia, 1987

Which party did you vote for in the House of Representatives? Liberal, Labor, National (Country), Australian Democrat, Other (please specify).

Australia, 1993

Which party did you vote for first in the House of Representatives? Liberal Party, Labor Party (ALP), National (Country) Party, Australian Democrats, Other (please specify party below).

Australia, 1996

In the Federal election for the House of Representatives on Saturday 2 March, which party did you vote for first in the House of Representatives? Liberal Party, Labor Party (ALP), National (Country) Party, Australian Democrats, Greens, Other (please specify below).

Australia, 1998

In the Federal election for the House of Representatives on Saturday 3 October, which party did you vote for first in the House of Representatives? Liberal Party, Labor Party (ALP), National (Country) Party, Australian Democrats, Greens, One Nation, Other (please specify party below).

Australia, 2001

In the Federal election for the House of Representatives on Saturday 10 November, which party did you vote for first in the House of Representatives? Liberal Party, Labor Party (ALP) National (Country) Party, Australian Democrats, Greens, One Nation, Other (please specify party below).

Australia, 2004

In the Federal election for the House of Representatives on Saturday 9 October, which party did you vote for first in the House of Representatives? Liberal Party, Labor Party (ALP) National (Country) Party, Australian Democrats, Greens, One Nation, Other (please specify party below).

New Zealand, 1999

Thinking now of the party vote, which party did you vote for in the 1999 election?

New Zealand, 2002

Thinking now of the party vote, which party did you vote for in the 2002 election?

Germany, 1980

Here is a ballot similar to the one you received for the federal election on October 5. Please mark how you voted in this last federal election. As you know, you had two votes: the first for a candidate in the local constituency, the second for a party. When you are finished, please put the ballot into the envelope. 〈vote for party list〉

Germany, 1987

Here is a voting ballot similar to the one you received for the election on January 25. At that time, you had two votes. The first vote was for a candidate here in your constituency, the second for a party. For which candidate did you vote? Please, tell me the number of the candidate. And for which party did you vote? Please tell me the number of the party.

Sweden, 1988

Which party did you vote for in the parliamentary election?

(p.181) Sweden, 1991

Which party did you vote for in the parliamentary election?

All choices coded in binary format: 1 = vote for party 0 = vote for all others.

Socio-Demographic Characteristics

Married (binary variable, 1 = married/partnered, 0 = all others)

Woman (binary variable, 1 = woman)

University degree (binary variable, 1 = degree holder, 0 = all others)

Employed (binary variable, 1 = employed)

Age (coded in seven categories: under 20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, 71+)

Institutional Variables

Bicameral (binary variable, 1 = yes)

Federal (binary variable, 1 = yes)

Effective number of Parties (calculated for each election using Laakso and Taagepera's formula for effective number of parties)

Least squares quotient (calculated for each election using Gallagher's formula)