This chapter examines derivational vortices, i.e., points in a derivation that the MSO system predicts should spell out separately. In particular, it explores the possibility that such domains are opaque to chain relations spanning from inside them, into the rest of the derivation. It is the nuanced topology of derivations, as characterized in terms of the MSO architecture — but also other proposals that take the Bare Phrase Structure system in all seriousness — that yield some characteristic island effects. A large chunk of the chapter has been devoted to exploring the empirical challenge that Stepanov (2007) poses for this general view. Once irrelevant factors are cleared out of the way, there are situations in which conditions of sub-extraction from subjects improve for some reason, at least in some languages.
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