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Constitutional ReferendumsThe Theory and Practice of Republican Deliberation$

Stephen Tierney

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199592791

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592791.001.0001

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(p.304) Appendix: Referendums from 1898–2011 cited in the book

(p.304) Appendix: Referendums from 1898–2011 cited in the book

Source:
Constitutional Referendums
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.305)

Place

Date

Subject

Turnout %

Result %

Algeria

1 July 1962

Independent statehood

73.8

Approved: 69.5

Anguilla

11 July 1967

Independent statehood

33.1

Approved: 99.9

Armenia

21 September 1991

Independent statehood

95

Approved: 99.2

Australia

6 November 1999

(1) Republic

95.1

(1) Not approved: 54.9

(2) Constitutional preamble

(2) Not approved: 60.7

Austria

10 April 1938

Anschluss—Annexation to Germany

99.7 (claimed by government)

Approved: 99.7 (claimed by government)

Austria

12 June 1994

EU membership

82.3

Approved: 66.6

Azerbaijan

10 December 1991

Independent statehood

95.3

Approved: 99.8

Belarus

24 November 1996

Adoption of the revised 1994 Constitution, including consolidation of presidential powers

84.1

Approved: 70.5

Belgium

12 March 1950

Retention of the monarchy

Approved: 57.7

Bosnia‐Herzegovina

9–10 November 1991

Referendum in the Serb‐inhabited regions of B‐H on maintaining status within Yugoslavia

Approved: 95.3

Bosnia‐Herzegovina

29 February–1 March 1992

Independent statehood

63.4

Approved: 99

Burma

10 May 2008

Constitution

99 (claimed by government)

Approved: 92.4 (claimed by government)

Cambodia

3 October 1945

Independent statehood

80.3

Approved: 100

Canada

29 September 1898

Prohibition

44

Approved: 51.3

Canada

27 April 1942

Conscription

71.3

Approved: 64.5

Canada

26 October 1992

Draft Charlottetown Accord

71.8

Not approved: 55

Canada, British Columbia

15 March 2002

First Nations treaty negotiations principles

33

All eight principles approved by over 80%

Canada, British Columbia

17 May 2005

Electoral reform

58.2

Not approved: 57.69 voted in favour but 60% required

Canada, British Columbia

12 May 2009

Electoral reform

51

Not approved: 60.9

Canada, Ontario

10 October 2007

Electoral reform

52.6

Not approved: 63

Canada, New Brunswick

14 May 2001

Lottery gaming

44

Approved: 53.1

Canada, Newfoundland

3 June 1948

(1) Return to dominion status

88

Option approval (1) 44.5

(2) Confederation

(2) 41.1

(3) Status quo

(3) 14.3

Canada, Newfoundland

22 July 1948

(1) Return to dominion status

85

(1) 47.7

(2) Confederation

(2) 52.3

Canada, Quebec

29 September 1898

Prohibition

44 (overall in Canada)

Not approved: 81.2

Canada, Quebec

10 April 1919

Legalized sale of alcohol

Approved: 78.6

Canada, Quebec

20 May 1980

Sovereignty association

85.6

Not approved: 59.6

Canada, Quebec

26 October 1992

Charlottetown Accord

82.8

Not approved: 55.4

Canada, Quebec

30 October 1995

Sovereignty and partnership

94

Not approved: 50.6

Chile

11 September 1980

Constitutional approval

93

Approved: 69

Chile

30 July 1989

Constitutional reforms

85

Approved: 91

Comoras

22 December 1974

Independent statehood

93.3

Approved: 94.6

Croatia (Krajina region)

19 August 1990

Union with the Serbian region of Bosnia

Voting limited to ethnic Serbs

Approved: 99.7 (unrecognized)

Croatia

19 May 1991

Independent statehood

80

Approved: 93.2

Czech Republic

13–14 June 2003

EU membership

55.2

Approved: 77.3

Denmark

23 May 1939

Reforming the upper house

44.5

Not approved: 90 voted for reform but this did not meet turnout threshold (45)

Denmark

2 October 1972

EEC membership

90.1

Approved: 63.4

Denmark

26 February 1986

Single European Act

75.4

Approved: 56.2

Denmark

2 June 1992

Maastricht Treaty

82.9

Not approved: 50.7

Denmark

18 May 1993

Edinburgh Agreement

85.5

Approved: 56.8

Denmark

28 May 1998

Amsterdam Treaty

76.2

Approved: 55.1

Denmark

28 September 2000

Economic and Monetary Union

87.8

Not approved: 46.9

East Timor

30 August 1999

Independence

95

Approved: 78.5

Egypt

26 March 2007

Constitutional reforms

27.1

Approved: 75.9

Eritrea

23–25 April 1993

Independence from Ethiopia

93.9

Approved: 99.8

Estonia

3 March 1991

Independence from the USSR

83

Approved: 78

Estonia

28 June 1992

(1) Draft constitution

66.7

(1) Approved: 91.3

(2) Russian‐speaking participation in elections

(2) Not approved: 53

Estonia

14 September 2003

EU membership

63

Approved: 67

Finland

16 October 1994

EU membership

70.8

Approved: 56.9

France

21 October 1945

Draft constitution and interim powers for the new Assembly

79.8

Approved: 96

France

5 May 1946

Constitution of the Fourth Republic

80

Not approved: 53

France

13 October 1946

Constitution of the Fourth Republic

66.4

Approved: 53.2

France

28 September 1958

Constitution of the Fifth Republic

79.8

Approved: 82.6

France

8 January 1961

Self‐determination for Algeria

73.8

Approved: 75

France

8 April 1962

Self‐determination for Algeria—Évian Accords

75.3

Approved: 90.8

France

28 October 1962

Direct election of the president

77

Approved: 62.3

France

27 April 1969

Powers of the Senate and regional devolution

80.1

Not approved: 52.4

France

6 November 1988

Matignon Accords—self‐determination for New Caledonia

37

Approved: 80

France

20 September 1992

Maastricht Treaty

69.7

Approved: 51.1

France

29 May 2005

Lisbon Treaty

69

Rejected: 54.8

Germany

12 November 1933

Withdraw from the Geneva Disarmament Conference and the League of Nations

96

Approved: 95 (government statistics)

Germany

19 August 1934

Confirm Hitler as Fuhrer

95

Approved: 90 (government statistics)

Germany

29 March 1936

Confirm German occupation of the Rhineland in violation of the Treaty of Versailles

99

Approved: 98.8 (government statistics)

Germany

10 April 1938

Ratify annexation of Austria

99

Approved: 99 (government statistics)

Cross‐ref to Austria

Ireland

10 May 1972

EEC membership

70.3

Approved: 83.1

Ireland

26 May 1987

Single European Act

44

Approved: 70

Ireland

18 June 1992

Maastricht Treaty

57.3

Approved: 69.1

Ireland

22 May 1998

Treaty of Amsterdam (18th constitutional amendment)

56.3

Approved: 61.7

Amend constitution in light of Belfast Agreement (19th constitutional amendment)

55.6

Approved 94.4

Ireland

7 June 2001

Treaty of Nice

34.8

Not approved: 53.9

Ireland

19 October 2002

Amended Treaty of Nice

49.5

Approved: 62.9

Ireland

12 June 2008

Treaty of Lisbon

53.1

Not approved: 53.4

Ireland

2 October 2009

Treaty of Lisbon

58

Approved: 67.1

Italy

24 March 1929

Election of Chamber of Deputies and Senate with single party list for the National Fascist Party

91

Approved: 98.3

Italy

25 March 1934

Single party rule by the National Fascist Party

96.2

Approved: 99.8

Italy

9 June 1991

Preference voting

62.5

Supported abrogation: 95.6

Italy

18 April 1999

Change to the electoral system

49.7

Approved: 91 (failed as 50% threshold not met)

Kazakhstan

17 March 1991

Sovereignty within a new USSR Union

88.2

Approved: 95.6

Kyrgyzstan (Kirghizia)

17 March 1991

Sovereignty within a new USSR Union

96.4

Approved: 94.5

Kosovo

26–30 September 1991 (unofficial)

Validate earlier declaration of independence

87

Approved: 98 (result issued by de facto Kosovar leadership)

Latvia

3 March 1991

Independence from the USSR

88

Approved: 75

Latvia

3 October 1998

Repeal the 1998 citizenship law

73

For repeal: 45

Against repeal: 53

Latvia

20 September 2003

EU membership

72.5

Approved: 74.9

Lithuania

8 February 1991

Independence from the USSR

84.7

Approved: 93.2

Luxembourg

10 July 2005

Lisbon Treaty

88

Approved: 57

Montenegro

1 March 1992

Remain part of Yugoslavia

66

Approved: 96

Montenegro

21 May 2006

Independence

86.5

Approved: 55.5

Netherlands

1 June 2005

Lisbon Treaty

63.3

Not approved: 61.5

New Caledonia

28 September 1958

Constitution of the Fifth Republic

Approved: 82.6

New Caledonia

13 September 1987

Matignon–Oudinot Accords—maintain dependence on France

58.6

Approved: 98.3

New Caledonia

8 November 1998

Noumea Accord

74

Approved: 72

Norway

28 November 1994

EU membership

89

Not approved: 47.8

Poland

30 June 1946

Three questions: (1) Abolish the senate

90.1

(1) Approved: 68 (official)

Not approved: 73 (actual)

(2) Constitutional consolidation

(2) Approved: 77 (official)

Not approved: 58 (actual)

(3) Consolidate western border

(3) Approved: 91 (official)

Approved: 67 (actual)

Actual results published in 1989 following fall of Communist government

Poland

29 November 1987

Economic/political reform

67

〈50 on both questions

Romania

23 November 1986

Reduce army

100

Approved: 100 (official results)

Russian Federation

12 December 1993

New constitution

58.4

Approved: 54.8

Samoa (then‐Western Samoa)

9 May 1961

Independent statehood

Approved

Slovenia

23 December 1990

Independent statehood

93.2

Approved: 95.7

Slovenia

23 March 2003

(1) EU membership

60.2

(1) Approved: 89.6

(2) NATO membership

(2) Approved: 66

South Africa

17 March 1992

Support efforts to end apartheid

85

Approved: 68.7

South Sudan

9–15 January 2011

Independence

97.6

Approved: 99

Spain

12 March 1986

NATO membership

59

Approved: 53

Spain

20 February 2005

Lisbon Treaty

42

Approved: 77

Sweden

13 November 1994

EU membership

83

Approved: 52

Turkmenistan

26 October 1991

Independent statehood

97.4

Approved: 94.1

Ukraine

17 March 1991

(1) New USSR Union Treaty

83.5

(1) Approved: 71.5

(2) Union based on 1990 Sovereignty Declaration

(2) Approved: 80

Ukraine

1 December 1991

Independence

84.2

Approved: 90.3

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

17 March 1991

Renewed federation

75.1

Approved: 69.9

United Kingdom

5 June 1975

Continued EC membership

64.5

Approved: 67.2

United Kingdom

5 May 2011

Electoral system: alternative vote

42.2

Not approved: 67.9

United Kingdom, England (North East)

4 November 2004

North East England regional assembly

47.8

Not approved: 78

United Kingdom, Northern Ireland

8 March 1973

Remain in UK

58.1

Approved: 98.9

United Kingdom, Northern Ireland

22 May 1998

Belfast Agreement

81.1

Approved: 71.1

United Kingdom, London

7 May 1998

Devolution of powers

34.6

Approved: 72

United Kingdom, Scotland

1 March 1979

Devolution of powers

33

Approved: 52 (did not meet 40% turnout threshold)

United Kingdom, Scotland

11 September 1997

(1) Creation of a Scottish Parliament

60.4

(1) Approved: 74.3

(2) Devolution of limited tax‐varying powers

(2) Approved: 63.5

United Kingdom, Wales

1 March 1979

Creation of a Welsh Assembly

58.8

Not approved: 79.7

United Kingdom, Wales

September 1997

Creation of a Welsh Assembly

50.1

Approved: 50.3

United Kingdom, Wales

3 March 2011

Devolution of further powers to the Welsh Assembly

35.4

Approved: 63.5

(British) Cameroons

November 1959

(1) Integrate with Nigeria

87.9

(1) Votes for union: 27.8

(2) Postpone decision

(2) Votes to postpone: 62.3

(British) Cameroons

21 February 1960

Constitutional reform

75.5

Approved: 60.3

(British) Cameroons

11 February 1961

(1) Integration into Cameroon

Northern Cameroons

(1) Approved: 40

(2) Approved: 60

(2) Integration into Nigeria

Southern Cameroons

(1) Approved: 70.5

(2) Approved: 29.5

(British) Togoland

9 May 1956

To merge with the Gold Coast

Approved: 63.4

USA, Massachusetts

1778

Ratify state constitution

Approved

USA, New Hampshire

1792

Ratify state constitution

Approved

Uzbekistan

29 December 1991

Independent statehood

Approved: 98

Paris Peace/League of Nations processes

Allenstein

11 July 1920

Territory to be part of Germany, not Poland

87

Approved: 98

Klagenfurt

10 October 1920

Territory to be part of Austria not Yugoslavia

96

Approved: 59

Marienwerder

11 July 1920

Territory to be part of Germany, not Poland

87

Approved: 98

Schleswig Northern Territory

10 February 1920

Territory to be part of Denmark

Approved: 74.9

Schleswig Southern Territory

14 March 1920

Territory to be part of Germany

Approved: 80.2

Sopron

17 December 1921

Territory to be part of Hungary, not Austria

89.5

Approved: 65

Upper Silesia

20 March 1921

Territory to be part of Germany, not Poland

97.5

Approved: 60

Saarland

13 January 1935

Territory to be part of Germany, not France

98

Approved: 90.7

(p.306) (p.307) (p.308) (p.309) (p.310) (p.311) (p.312)