Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Clinical Neurobiology of the HippocampusAn integrative view$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Thorsten Bartsch

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199592388

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592388.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy).date: 20 September 2017

Introduction: The Hippocampus in the Clinical Neurosciences

Introduction: The Hippocampus in the Clinical Neurosciences

Chapter:
(p.1) Chapter 1 Introduction: The Hippocampus in the Clinical Neurosciences
Source:
The Clinical Neurobiology of the Hippocampus
Author(s):

Thorsten Bartsch

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592388.003.0001

The hippocampus is one of the most studied structures in the human brain and plays a pivotal role in human memory and cognition. The anatomy of this allocortical and phylogenetically old structure was first described over 400 years ago but its function remained enigmatic until the dawn of the modern neurosciences. In neurobiological research, the hippocampus serves as a model for studying the general properties of the nervous system because of the peculiarities in this brain region’s anatomy. Eminent functional milestones of brain function, such as the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity as correlates of learning (long-term potentiation), the place–cell system, and the formation of new neuronal cells in the adult hippocampus were discovered in the hippocampus. The function of the hippocampus is affected in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases which is a reflection of certain pathophysiological characteristics, such as its vulnerability to ischaemia, metabolic and behavioural stress, as well as its susceptibility to epileptogenic mechanisms. The clinical spectrum of hippocampal dysfunction encompasses clinical conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, ischaemia, limbic encephalitis, neurodevelopmental disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. Functional and structural imaging of the hippocampus has become an important surrogate marker for defining clinical states. The mechanisms of neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus in health and disease have only begun to be unravelled, but may open the door for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease, neuropsychiatric diseases, and rehabilitative medicine.

Keywords:   hippocampus, memory, vulnerability, ageing, learning, plasticity

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .