In the last few decades there has been a growing interest in hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) mainly due to the improvement in assessment tools and the effectiveness of treating the condition. The physiological understanding of the syndrome is currently under debate and HVS as a title has itself come under question. This chapter aims to unravel the problems with the definition and title of HVS, highlight the numerous and varied causes, explain how to identify the syndrome, establish what assessment tools are available, and provide a practical guide for assisting breathing re-education.
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