Non-pharmacological strategies for dyspnoea
Despite optimal medical therapy and rehabilitation, nearly 75% of individuals with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease continue to experience dyspnoea with daily activities. Dyspnoea causes social isolation, difficulty performing routine activities, and impairs sexual function. Depression and anxiety often precipitate dyspnoea or are escalated by dyspnoea. This chapter discusses non-pharmacological strategies based on a multidimensional definition of dyspnoea as a symptom, accepted phases of symptom perception, evidence of strong relationships between malleable factors and dyspnoea intensity, and principles of biological, sociological, and cognitive-behavioural theory.
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