Full Protection and Security
Clauses guaranteeing investor ‘full protection and security’ are included in most bilateral and multilateral investment treaties. They require not only abstention by the host State from physically damaging foreign investment, but also positive measures to protect foreign investment, in particular against harm caused by private actors. This chapter shows the importance of and need for a comparative legal approach in order to understand what a guarantee of ‘full protection and security’ means today, in customary international law, but also in bilateral and multilateral investment treaties. It starts with an analysis of the origins of the clauses in customary international law and its importance for the understanding of their content under investment treaties, before analysing investment law jurisprudence on this basis. The applicable standard of protection in investment treaties is clarified in comparative perspective, in particular as regards human rights protection systems, with a view to developing general principles of law.
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