Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Genocide and Political Groups$

David L. Nersessian

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199588909

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588909.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 June 2018

(p.267) Appendix A Data Tables—State Practice on Genocide

(p.267) Appendix A Data Tables—State Practice on Genocide

Source:
Genocide and Political Groups
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

  1. Table I 84-State Survey—Groups Covered by Domestic Legislation Implementing Either the Genocide Convention or the ICC Statute

  2. Table II 20 States Covering Political Groups in Domestic Laws on Genocide

  3. Table III 51 States not Party to the Genocide Convention

  4. Table IV 141 States Party to the Genocide Convention

  5. Table V 64 States Party to the Genocide Convention (Domestic Legislation Unavailable)

(p.268)

Table I 84-State Survey

Groups Covered by Domestic Legislation Implementing Either the Genocide Convention or the ICC Statute

State

Relevant Law

Political Groups?

Social Groups?

‘Other’ Groups?

Albania

Criminal Code Law No 7895 (27 Jan 1995) art 73

No

No

No

Antigua & Barbuda

Genocide Act, Laws vol 4 c 191

No

No

No

Argentina

Draft Code of Crimes Within the Competence of the [ICC] pt 2 tit 1 art 13

No

No

No

Armenia

Criminal Code s 13 c 33 art 393

No

No

No

Australia

[ICC] Act (No 42) 2002 ss 268.3 - 268.37

No

No

No

Austria

Penal Code c 25 s 321

No

No

No

Azerbaijan

Criminal Code s 7 pt 16 art 103

No

No

No

Bangladesh

International Crimes (Tribunals) Act (19 Jul 1973) art 3

Yes

No

No

Barbados

Genocide Act 1980, Laws of Barbados vol 6 tit 9 c 133A

No

No

No

Belarus

Criminal Code s 6 c 17 art 127

Implicit

Implicit

Yes1

Belgium

Law on the Repression of Serious Violations of Humanitarian International Law (10 Feb 1999) art 3

No

No

No

Bolivia

Penal Code Law No 1768 tit 1 c 4 art 138

No

No

No

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Criminal Code: ‘Official Gazette’ of Bosnia and Herzegovina No 3/03 (22 Nov 2003) art 171

No

No

No

Brazil

Draft implementing Legislation Presented to the Minister of Justice (Oct 2002) c 2 art 18

No

No

No

Bulgaria

Criminal Code c 14 s 3

No

No

No

Burkina Faso

Penal Code c 2 art 313

Implicit

Implicit

Yes2

Cambodia

Decree Law No 1 (15 Jul 1979)3

Cambodian Genocide Law (10 Aug 2001) No NS/RKM/1004/006

Yes

Yes

No4

Canada

Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act Offences Within Canada SC 2000 c 24 s 4

Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act Offences Outside Canada SC 2000 c 24 s 6

Implicit

Implicit

Yes5

China

Translation of Genocide Convention ‘People's Republic of China State Gazette’ upon ratification in April 1983

No

No

No

Columbia

Crimes Against Life and Personal Integrity, Penal Law No 599 (24 Jul 2000) bk 2 tit 1 arts 101–02

Yes

No

No

Congo (DR)

Law No 8–98 (31 Oct 1998) c 1 art 1

Implicit

Implicit

Yes6

Costa Rica

Penal Code (14 Apr 1998) art 127

Yes

Yes

Yes7

Côte d'Ivoire

Penal Code c 1 s 1 tit 1 art 137

Yes

No

No

Croatia

Penal Code c 13 art 156

No

No

No

Cuba

Penal Code Law No 62, as modified by Law No 87 bk 1 c 3 s 6 art 116

No

No

No

Czech Republic

Criminal Code c 20 s 259

No

No

No

Denmark

Act No 132 (29 Apr 1955) s 1

No

No

No

Ecuador

Law on Crimes Against Humanity art 19

Yes

Implicit

Yes8

El Salvador

Penal Code (Decree No 1030) tit 19 art 361

No

No

No

Estonia

Penal Code 1994 (9 Nov) s 61 and

Penal Code 2001 s 61

Implicit

Yes

Yes9

Ethiopia

Penal Code 1957 art 281

Yes

No

No

Fiji

Penal Code 1945 pt 2 div 1 c 8 s 69

No

No

No

Finland

Penal Code No 39/1889 c 11

Implicit

Implicit

Yes10

France

Code Penal art 211–1, affirmed by Law No 2002–268 (26 Feb 2002) on Co-operation with the [ICC]

Implicit

Implicit

Yes11

Georgia

Criminal Code s 14 c 47 art 407

No

No

No

Germany

VStGB [Code of Crimes Against International Law] BGBl 2002 I at 2254 (30 Jun) art 1 pt 2 c 1 s 6(1)

No

No

No

Ghana

Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 1993 s 1

No

No

No

Guatemala

Penal Code art 376

No

No

No

Hungary

Criminal Code 1978 c 11 tit 1 s 155

No

No

No

Indonesia 12

Law No 26 (2000) c 3 art 8

No

No

No

Iraq

Statute of the Iraqi Special Tribunal (10 Dec 2003) art 11

No

No

No

Ireland

[ICC] Bill 2003 (No 36) pt 2 s 6

No

No

No

Israel

Crime of Genocide (Prevention and Punishment) Law No 5710–1950

No

No

No

Italy

Law No 962 (9 Oct 1967) art 1

No

No

No

Jamaica

Offences against the Person Act (Amendment 1968) Laws vol 8 s 33

No

No

No

Kiribati 13

Penal Code s 8 art 62

No

No

No

Kyrgyzstan

Criminal Code s 12 c 34 art 373

No

No

No

Latvia

Criminal Code (17 Jun 1998) c 8 s 71

Implicit

Yes

Yes14

Liechtenstein

Penal Code StGB (24 Jun 1987) c 25 s 321

No

No

No

Lithuania

Criminal Code art 71

Yes

Yes

No

Luxembourg

Law on the Repression of Genocide (8 Aug 1985) art 1

No

No

No

Mali

Penal Code (2001) bk 3 tit 1 c 2 art 30

No

No

No

Malta 15

[ICC] Act (13 Dec 2003) sch 1 art 6

No

No

No

Mexico

Penal Code 1931 bk 2 tit 3 c 2 art 149-bis (as amended)

No

No

No

Moldova

Criminal Code c 1 art 135

No

No

No

Netherlands

International Crimes Act (9 Jun 2003) pt 2 s 3

No

No

No

New Zealand

International Crimes and [ICC] Act 2000 No 26 and Amendment No 67 (2002) pt 2 s 9

No

No

No

Nicaragua

Penal Code bk 2 tit 14 art 549

No

No

No

Panama

Penal Code: Crimes Against the International Community tit 9 c 3 art 311

Yes

No

No

Paraguay

Penal Code bk 2 tit 9 art 308 art 319

No

No

No

Peru

Law No 26926 (19 Feb 1998) tit 14 c 1 art 319

No

No

No

Poland

Penal Code: Law of 6 Jun 1997 c 16 art 118

Yes16

No

No

Portugal

Penal Code 1982 art 189, as modified by Penal Code tit 3 c 2 art 239 and Law No 31/2004 (22 Jul 2004) art 218

No

No17

No

Romania

Romanian Socialist Republic Penal Code (1976 Special Part) tit 9 art 356

Implicit

Implicit

Yes18

Russian Federation

Criminal Code s 12 c 34 art 357

No

No

No

Rwanda

Organic Law 8/96 (1 Sep 1996) arts 1(a) and 2

No

No

No

Scotland 19

[ICC] Act 2001 (2001 asp 13) sch 1

No

No

No

Seychelles

Genocide Act 1969 sch 1 art 6

No

No

No

Slovenia

Penal Code 1994 c 35 art 373

Yes

Yes

No

Solomon Islands 20

Penal Code: Law No 46A of 1978 pt 7 art 52

No

No

No

South Africa

Law No 27 of 2002: Implementation of the [ICC Statute] Act 2002 (12 Jul) sch 1 pt 1

No

No

No

Spain

Penal Code: Law No 10/1995 (23 Nov) and Law No 15/2003 (25 Nov) art 607

No

No

No

Sweden

Penal Code: Law No 169 (20 Mar 1963) s 1

No

No

No

Switzerland

Penal Code bk 2 c 12(a) art 264

No

No

No

Tajikistan 21

Penal Code s 1 c 1 art 398

No

No

No

Tonga

Genocide Act 1969 Law No 8 c 19 s 2

No

No

No

Trinidad and Tobago

Genocide Act 1977 s 3

No

No

No

Tuvalu 22

Penal Code c 8 pt 8 art 62

No

No

No

Uganda

[ICC] Bill (19 Apr 2004) art 7 sch 1

No

No

No

Ukraine

Criminal Code (1 Sep 2001) c 20 art 442

No

No

No

United Kingdom

[ICC] Act 2001 c 17 sch 8 pt 1art 6

No

No

No

United States

Genocide Implementation Act of 1987 18 USC s 1091, as amended by Law No 110–141 (21 Dec 07) s 2

No

No

No

Uruguay

Implementation of the [ICC] Statute 2003 (17 Jan 2003) art 2

No

No

No

Venezuela

Proposed Legislation on Implementation of the [ICC] Statute (25 Jul 2002) art 5

No

No

No

(p.269) (p.270) (p.271) (p.272)

Table II 20 States Covering Political Groups in Domestic Provisions on Genocide

State

Relevant Law

Political Groups?

Social Groups?

‘Other’ Groups?

Bangladesh

International Crimes (Tribunals) Act (19 Jul 1973) art 3

Yes

No

No

Belarus

Criminal Code s 6 c 17 art 127

Implicit

Implicit

Yes23

Burkina Faso

Penal Code c 2 art 313

Implicit

Implicit

Yes24

Cambodia

Decree Law No 1 (15 Jul 1979)25

Cambodian Genocide Law (10 Aug 2001) No NS/RKM/1004/006

Yes

Yes

No26

Canada

Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act Offences Within Canada SC 2000 c 24 s 4

Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act Offences Outside Canada SC 2000 c 24 s 6

Implicit

Implicit

Yes27

Columbia

Crimes Against Life and Personal Integrity, Penal Law No 599 (24 Jul 2000) bk 2 tit 1 arts 101–02

Yes

No

No

Congo (DR)

Law No 8–98 (31 Oct 1998) c 1 art 1

Implicit

Implicit

Yes28

Costa Rica

Penal Code (14 Apr 1998) art 127

Yes

Yes

Yes29

Côte d'Ivoire

Penal Code c 1 s 1 tit 1 art 137

Yes

No

No

Ecuador

Law on Crimes Against Humanity art 19

Yes

Implicit

Yes30

Estonia

Penal Code 1994 (9 Nov) s 61 and Penal Code 2001 s 61

Implicit

Yes

Yes31

Ethiopia

Penal Code 1957 art 281

Yes

No

No

Finland

Penal Code No 39/1889 c 11

Implicit

Implicit

Yes32

France

Code Penal art 211–1, affirmed by Law No 2002–268 (26 Feb 2002) on Co-operation with the [ICC]

Implicit

Implicit

Yes33

Latvia

Criminal Code (17 Jun 1998) c 8 s 71

Implicit

Yes

Yes34

Lithuania

Criminal Code art 71

Yes

Yes

No

Panama

Penal Code: Crimes Against the International Community tit 9 c 3 art 311

Yes

No

No

Poland

Penal Code: Law of 6 Jun 1997 c 16 art 118

Yes35

No

No

Romania

Romanian Socialist Republic Penal Code (1976 Special Part) tit 9 art 356

Implicit

Implicit

Yes36

Slovenia

Penal Code 1994 c 35 art 373

Yes

Yes

No

(p.273)

Table III 51 States not Party to the Genocide Convention

State

Date of UN Membership

Party to ICC Statute?

Angola

1 Dec 1976

S 37

Benin

20 Sep 1960

R

Bhutan

21 Sep 1971

N

Botswana

17 Oct 1966

R

Brunei Darussalam

21 Sep 1984

N

Cameroon

20 Sep 1960

S

Cape Verde

16 Sep 1975

S

Central African Republic

20 Sep 1960

R

Chad

20 Sep 1960

R

Congo

20 Sep 1960

R

Djibouti

20 Sep 1977

R

Dominica

18 Dec 1978

R

Dominican Republic 38

24 Oct 1945

R

Equatorial Guinea

12 Nov 1968

N

Eritrea

28 May 1993

S

Grenada

17 Sep 1974

N

Guinea-Bissau

17 Sep 1974

S

Guyana

20 Sep 1966

R

Indonesia

28 Sep 1950

N

Japan

18 Dec 1956

R

Kenya

16 Dec 1963

R

Kiribati

14 Sep 1999

N

Madagascar

20 Sep 1960

R

Malawi

1 Dec 1964

R

Malta

1 Dec 1964

R

Marshall Islands

17 Sep 1991

R

Mauritania

27 Oct 1961

N

Mauritius

24 Apr 1968

R

Micronesia

17 Sep 1991

N

Nauru

14 Sep 1999

R

Niger

20 Sep 1960

R

Oman

7 Oct 1971

S

Palau

15 Dec 1994

N

Qatar

21 Sep 1971

N

Saint Lucia

18 Sep 1979

S

Samoa

15 Dec 1976

R

San Marino

2 Mar 1992

R

Sao Tome and Principe

16 Sep 1975

S

Sierra Leone

27 Sep 1961

R

Solomon Islands

19 Sep 1978

S

Somalia

20 Sep 1960

N

St. Kitts and Nevis

23 Sep 1983

R

Suriname

4 Dec 1975

R

Swaziland

24 Sep 1968

N

Tajikistan

2 Mar 1992

R

Thailand

16 Dec 1946

S

Timor-Leste

27 Sep 2002

R

Turkmenistan

2 Mar 1992

N

Tuvalu

5 Sep 2000

N

Vanuatu

15 Sep 1981

N

Zambia

1 Dec 1962

R

[ICC] Ratifying States: 26

[ICC] Signatory States: 10

[ICC] Non-Party States: 15

Source on Genocide Convention:

Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: United Nations Treaty Collection—Genocide Convention (13 Jan 2010) available at <http://www.treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&lang=en> (visited 13 Jan 2010).

Source on ICC:

Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: United Nations Treaty Collection—Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (13 Jan 2010) available at <http://www.treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=XVIII-10&chapter=18&lang=en> (visited 13 Jan 2010).

(p.274) (p.275)

Table IV 141 States Party to the Genocide Convention

State

Signature

Ratified / Acceded

Afghanistan

22 Mar 1956

Albania

12 May 1955

Algeria

31 Oct 1963

Andorra

22 Sep 2006

Antigua and Barbuda

25 Oct 1988

Argentina

5 Jun 1956

Armenia

23 Jun 1993

Australia

11 Dec 1948

8 Jul 1949

Austria

19 Mar 1958

Azerbaijan

16 Aug 1996

Bahamas

5 Aug 1975

Bahrain

27 Mar 1990

Bangladesh

5 Oct 1998

Barbados

14 Jan 1980

Belarus

16 Dec 1949

11 Aug 1954

Belgium

12 Dec 1949

5 Sep 1951

Belize

10 Mar 1998

Bolivia

11 Dec 1948

14 Jun 2005

Bosnia and Herzegovina

29 Dec 1992

Brazil

11 Dec 1948

15 Apr 1952

Bulgaria

21 Jul 1950

Burkina Faso

14 Sep 1965

Burundi

6 Jan 1997

Cambodia

14 Oct 1950

Canada

28 Nov 1949

3 Sep 1952

Chile

11 Dec 1948

3 Jun 1953

China

20 Jul 1949

18 Apr 1983

Colombia

12 Aug 1949

27 Oct 1959

Comoros

27 Sep 2004

Congo (Democratic Republic of)

31 May 1962

Costa Rica

14 Oct 1950

Côte d'Ivoire

18 Dec 1995

Croatia

12 Oct 1992

Cuba

28 Dec 1949

4 Mar 1953

Cyprus

29 Mar 1982

Czech Republic

22 Feb 1993

Denmark

28 Sep 1949

15 Jun 1951

Ecuador

11 Dec 1948

21 Dec 1949

Egypt

12 Dec 1948

8 Feb 1952

El Salvador

27 Apr 1949

28 Sep 1950

Estonia

21 Oct 1991

Ethiopia

11 Dec 1948

1 Jul 1949

Fiji

11 Jan 1973

Finland

18 Dec 1959

France

11 Dec 1948

14 Oct 1950

Gabon

21 Jan 1983

Gambia

29 Dec 1978

Georgia

11 Oct 1993

Germany

24 Nov 1954

Ghana

24 Dec 1958

Greece

29 Dec 1949

8 Dec 1954

Guatemala

22 Jun 1949

13 Jan 1950

Guinea

7 Sep 2000

Haiti

11 Dec 1948

14 Oct 1950

Honduras

22 Apr 1949

5 Mar 1952

Hungary

7 Jan 1952

Iceland

14 May 1949

29 Aug 1949

India

29 Nov 1949

27 Aug 1959

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

8 Dec 1949

14 Aug 1956

Iraq

20 Jan 1959

Ireland

22 Jun 1976

Israel

17 Aug 1949

9 Mar 1950

Italy

4 Jun 1952

Jamaica

23 Sep 1968

Jordan

3 Apr 1950

Kazakhstan

26 Aug 1998

Korea (Democratic People's Republic of [North])

31 Jan 1989

Korea (Republic of [South])

14 Oct 1950

Kuwait

7 Mar 1995

Kyrgyzstan

5 Sep 1997

Laos People's Democratic Republic

8 Dec 1950

Latvia

14 Apr 1992

Lebanon

30 Dec 1949

17 Dec 1953

Lesotho

29 Nov 1974

Liberia

11 Dec 1948

9 Jun 1950

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

16 May 1989

Liechtenstein

24 Mar 1994

Lithuania

1 Feb 1996

Luxembourg

7 Oct 1981

Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)

18 Jan 1994

Malaysia

20 Dec 1994

Maldives

24 Apr 1984

Mali

16 Jul 1974

Mexico

14 Dec 1948

22 Jul 1952

Moldova (Republic of)

26 Jan 1993

Monaco

30 Mar 1950

Mongolia

5 Jan 1967

Montenegro

19 July 2006

23 Oct 2006

Morocco

24 Jan 1958

Mozambique

18 Apr 1983

Myanmar

30 Dec 1949

14 Mar 1956

Namibia

28 Nov 1994

Nepal

17 Jan 1969

Netherlands

20 Jun 1966

New Zealand

25 Nov 1949

28 Dec 1978

Nicaragua

29 Jan 1952

Nigeria

27 Jul 2009

Norway

11 Dec 1948

22 Jul 1949

Pakistan

11 Dec 1948

12 Oct 1957

Panama

11 Dec 1948

11 Jan 1950

Papua New Guinea

27 Jan 1982

Paraguay

11 Dec 1948

3 Oct 2001

Peru

11 Dec 1948

24 Feb 1960

Philippines

11 Dec 1948

7 Jul 1950

Poland

14 Nov 1950

Portugal

9 Feb 1999

Romania

2 Nov 1950

Russian Federation

16 Dec 1949

3 May 1954

Rwanda

16 Apr 1975

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

9 Nov 1981

Saudi Arabia

13 Jul 1950

Senegal

4 Aug 1983

Serbia

12 Mar 2001

Seychelles

5 May 1992

Singapore

18 Aug 1995

Slovakia

28 May 1993

Slovenia

6 Jul 1992

South Africa

10 Dec 1998

Spain

13 Sep 1968

Sri Lanka

12 Oct 1950

Sudan

13 Oct 2003

Sweden

30 Dec 1949

27 May 1952

Switzerland

7 Sep 2000

Syrian Arab Republic

25 Jun 1955

Tanzania (United Republic of)

5 Apr 1984

Togo

24 May 1984

Tonga

16 Feb 1972

Trinidad and Tobago

13 Dec 2002

Tunisia

29 Nov 1956

Turkey

31 Jul 1950

Uganda

14 Nov 1995

Ukraine

16 Dec 1949

15 Nov 1954

United Arab Emirates

11 Nov 2005

United Kingdom

30 Jan 1970

United States of America

11 Dec 1948

25 Nov 1988

Uruguay

11 Dec 1948

11 Jul 1967

Uzbekistan

9 Sep 1999

Venezuela

12 Jul 1960

Viet nam

9 Jun 1981

Yemen

9 Feb 1987

Zimbabwe

13 May 1991

Source: Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: United Nations Treaty Collection—Genocide Convention (13 Jan 2010) available at <http://www.treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&lang=en> (visited 13 Jan 2010).

(p.276) (p.277) (p.278)

Table V 64 States Parties to the Genocide Convention (Domestic Legislation Unavailable)

State

Signature

Ratified / Acceded

Afghanistan

22 Mar 1956

Algeria

31 Oct 1963

Andorra

22 Sep 2006

Bahamas

5 Aug 1975

Bahrain

27 Mar 1990

Belize

10 Mar 1998

Burundi

6 Jan 1997

Chile

11 Dec 1948

3 Jun 1953

Comoros

27 Sep 2004

Cyprus

29 Mar 1982

Egypt

12 Dec 1948

8 Feb 1952

Gabon

21 Jan 1983

Gambia

29 Dec 1978

Greece

29 Dec 1949

8 Dec 1954

Guinea

7 Sep 2000

Haiti

11 Dec 1948

14 Oct 1950

Honduras

22 Apr 1949

5 Mar 1952

Iceland

14 May 1949

29 Aug 1949

India

29 Nov 1949

27 Aug 1959

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

8 Dec 1949

14 Aug 1956

Jordan

3 Apr 1950

Kazakhstan

26 Aug 1998

Korea (Democratic People's Republic of [North])

31 Jan 1989

Korea (Republic of [South])

14 Oct 1950

Kuwait

7 Mar 1995

Laos People's Democratic Republic

8 Dec 1950

Lebanon

30 Dec 1949

17 Dec 1953

Lesotho

29 Nov 1974

Liberia

11 Dec 1948

9 Jun 1950

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

16 May 1989

Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)

18 Jan 1994

Malaysia

20 Dec 1994

Maldives

24 Apr 1984

Monaco

30 Mar 1950

Mongolia

5 Jan 1967

Montenegro

19 July 2006

23 Oct 2006

Morocco

24 Jan 1958

Mozambique

18 Apr 1983

Myanmar

30 Dec 1949

14 Mar 1956

Namibia

28 Nov 1994

Nepal

17 Jan 1969

Nigeria

29 Jul 2009

Norway

11 Dec 1948

22 Jul 1949

Pakistan

11 Dec 1948

12 Oct 1957

Papua New Guinea

27 Jan 1982

Philippines

11 Dec 1948

7 Jul 1950

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

9 Nov 1981

Saudi Arabia

13 Jul 1950

Senegal

4 Aug 1983

Serbia

12 Mar 2001

Singapore

18 Aug 1995

Slovakia

28 May 1993

Sri Lanka

12 Oct 1950

Sudan

13 Oct 2003

Syrian Arab Republic

25 Jun 1955

Tanzania (United Republic of)

5 Apr 1984

Togo

24 May 1984

Tunisia

29 Nov 1956

Turkey

31 Jul 1950

United Arab Emirates

11 Nov 2005

Uzbekistan

9 Sep 1999

Viet nam

9 Jun 1981

Yemen

9 Feb 1987

Zimbabwe

13 May 1991

Source: Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: United Nations Treaty Collection—Genocide Convention (13 Jan 2010) available at <http://www.treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&lang=en> (visited 13 Jan 2010).

(p.279)

Notes:

(1) Including ‘groups formed on the basis of another criterion chosen arbitrarily’.

(2) Including ‘a group established from any other arbitrary criterion’.

(3) ‘Planned destruction of innocent people; Evacuation of people from towns and villages; Concentrating people and forcing them to do hard labour in physically and morally exhausting conditions; Abolition of religion and destruction of economic and cultural structures and familial and social relations’.

(4) Cambodia initially proposed enlarging the groups protected to include: ‘wealth, level of education, sociological environment (urban/rural), allegiance to a political system or regime (old people/new people), social class or social category (merchant, civil servant etc)’. The additional categories were rejected out of concern for the principles of legality. Schabas 145–6 (2000).

(5) Including ‘any identifiable group’.

(6) Including ‘a group determined starting from any other arbitrary criterion’.

(7) Including ‘gender, age, sexual preference, social position, economic situation or civil status’.

(8) Including ‘gender, sexual orientation, age, health or conscience’.

(9) Including ‘groups offering resistance to the occupation regime’.

(10) Including ‘another comparable group’.

(11) Including ‘a group determined by any other arbitrary criterion’.

(12) Indonesia is party to neither the Genocide Convention nor the ICC Statute.

(13) Kiribati is party to neither the Genocide Convention nor the ICC Statute.

(14) Including ‘ethnic origin, race, social class or a defined collective belief or faith’.

(15) Malta is party to neither the Genocide Convention nor the ICC Statute.

(16) Including ‘political group or a group of persons with a definite philosophical conviction’.

(17) Portugal's original law, which included social groups, was revised to conform to the four categories in the Genocide Convention in Decree Law no 48/95 (15 March 1995). Schabas 146 (2000).

(18) Including ‘a collectivity or a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group’.

(19) Scotland is part of the UK but has its own domestic legislation implementing the ICC Statute.

(20) Solomon Islands is party to neither the Genocide Convention nor the ICC Statute.

(21) Tajikistan is not party to the Genocide Convention but has ratified the ICC Statute.

(22) Tuvalu is party to neither the Genocide Convention nor the ICC Statute.

(23) Including ‘groups formed on the basis of another criterion chosen arbitrarily’.

(24) Including ‘a group established from any other arbitrary criterion’.

(25) ‘Planned destruction of innocent people; Evacuation of people from towns and villages; Concentrating people and forcing them to do hard labour in physically and morally exhausting conditions; Abolition of religion and destruction of economic and cultural structures and familial and social relations’.

(26) Cambodia initially proposed enlarging the groups protected to include: ‘wealth, level of education, sociological environment (urban/rural), allegiance to a political system or regime (old people/new people), social class or social category (merchant, civil servant etc)’. The additional categories were rejected out of concern for the principles of legality. Schabas 145–6 (2000).

(27) Including ‘any identifiable group’.

(28) Including ‘a group determined starting from any other arbitrary criterion’.

(29) Including ‘gender, age, sexual preference, social position, economic situation or civil status’.

(30) Including ‘gender, sexual orientation, age, health or conscience’.

(31) Including ‘groups offering resistance to the occupation regime’.

(32) Including ‘another comparable group’.

(33) Including ‘a group determined by any other arbitrary criterion’.

(34) Including ‘ethnic origin, race, social class or a defined collective belief or faith’.

(35) Including ‘political group or a group of persons with a definite philosophical conviction’.

(36) Including ‘a collectivity or a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group’.

(37) N = Not Party; S = Signatory; R = Ratified/Acceded. As of January 2010, there are 192 member states in the United Nations: Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: United Nations Treaty Collection—Charter of the United Nations (13 Jan 2010) available at <http://www.treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=I-1&chapter=1&lang=en> (visited 13 Jan 2010).

(38) The Dominican Republic is a signatory to the Genocide Convention (13 Dec 1948), but has not ratified the treaty.