Highly excited semiconductors
‘Highly excited semiconductors’ basically signifies important qualitative modifications in the appearance of photoluminescence emission spectra when excited with high-power lasers. In comparison with a ‘standard’ weak lamp excitation, a number of novel emission lines may appear. Responsible for these prominent luminescence features are various interactions between closely spaced free excitons. Particular microscopic mechanisms are examined, namely: excitonic molecule (biexciton) creation, decay and binding energy; collisions of free excitons; electron-hole liquid and the pertinent phase diagram; Mott transition and electron–hole plasma; Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons. Attention is paid to typical emission lineshape and its behaviour with varying excitation intensity and measurement temperature. The goal is to teach the reader to identify correctly a plenty of lines that may occur in the experimental emission spectrum. Throughout the chapter, typical luminescence spectra as acquired on various semiconductors illustrate the text.
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