Electroluminescence of inorganic semiconductors, as one of the principal application directions of luminescence phenomena, is treated in detail. At first, a short historical note is given. Two basic types of electroluminescence are distinguished: High-field electroluminescence and injection electroluminescence. Experimental conditions for and microscopic mechanisms of the high-field electroluminescence are explained (Schottky effect, Poole–Frenkel effect, impact excitation, and ionization). Typical intensity, spectral and temporal characteristics of the emitted luminescence radiation are illustrated. As for injection electroluminescence, basic electric properties of a p-n (homo)junction are reviewed. Representative intensity, spectral and temporal characteristics of light-emitting diodes, made of various semiconductors, are presented. A particular note is devoted to electroluminescence of a p-n junction biased in the reverse direction.
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