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Nanocomposites with Biodegradable PolymersSynthesis, Properties, and Future Perspectives$
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Vikas Mittal

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199581924

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581924.001.0001

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Biodegradation of polymeric systems

Biodegradation of polymeric systems

Chapter:
(p.28) 2 Biodegradation of polymeric systems
Source:
Nanocomposites with Biodegradable Polymers
Author(s):

In-Joo Chin

Shogo Uematsu

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581924.003.0002

Biodegradation can be defined as a process in which the degradation results from the action of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or algae. Biodegradable polymers may be broken down by the enzymes of microorganisms, and the polymer substrate is used as the carbon source for the microorganism metabolism. Biodegradation of polymers produces CO2 under aerobic environments or CH4 under the anaerobic environments, in addition to humus. According to the SPI Bioplastics Council, a biodegradable plastic is a plastic that undergoes biodegradation as per accepted industry standards such as ASTM D6400, EN 13432, etc. A variety of biodegradable polymers have been commercialized. According to their origin, biodegradable polymers are classified into three major categories: (1) synthetic polymers, particularly aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO); (2) polyesters produced by microorganisms, which are various types of poly(hybroxyalkanoate)s, including poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV); and (3) polymers originating from natural sources, including starch, cellulose, chitosan, chitin, lignin, and proteins. As there has been an increasing demand in reducing the carbon footprint, much effort is being made to utilize renewable resources in producing raw materials for the chemical industry. Biomass-based plastics represent an important example. It should be noted that not all biobased polymers are biodegradable. Plastics that have biobased content and/or biodegradable plastics are called bioplastics.

Keywords:   biodegradation, microorganisms, enzymes, metabolism, anaerobic

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