Electron crystallography ‐ an introduction
The historical introduction covers the parallel developments in EM on inorganic and biological samples. Vainshtein, Pinsker and Zvyagin in Moscow solved structures from electron-diffraction patterns in the 1950s. Aaron Klug in 1968 pioneered computer image processing of EM images and realised that the crystallographic structure factor phase information can be read out directly in numbers from the Fourier transform. A few years later the EM optics was powerful enough to allow metals to be seen in oxides. The first determination of atomic coordinates in a crystal from EM images was done in 1984. Compared to X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy has some advantages; crystals a million times smaller (even defects) can be studied and the crystallographic structure factor phases can be read out numerically. Drawbacks are radiation damage (especially for organics) and multiple diffraction.
Keywords: electron crystallography, history of electron crystallography, crystal structure, disordered compounds, crystallographic structure factor phase, electron microscopy, electron diffraction, crystallography, electron microscopy image, crystal structure factor, image processing
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