The Restoration of Retribution
This chapter shows how Hart's account of restorative justice in relation to torts, in The Concept of Law, suggests an account of retributive justice in relation to crimes. Such an account is partially developed by Jeffrie Murphy, but needs the completion that is afforded when what the offender gains in the act of offending is correctly identified, along with the responsiveness of punishment precisely to that gain. Punishment has as its general justifying aim the restoration of the fair balance of advantages and disadvantages between citizens that was disrupted by the crime (when committed with full mensrea). The relations between this account and the different accounts of punishment's aim by Aquinas, Kant, and utilitarianism are traced.
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