(p.290) (p.291) Appendix Principal Victims of the Politicians’ Terror in the Year Two (between 22 September 1793 and 21 September 1794)
Principal Victims of the Politicians’ Terror in the Year Two (between 22 September 1793 and 21 September 1794)
Of the twenty-one Girondin deputies who were put on trial by the Revolutionary Tribunal, Brissot, Vergniaud, Gensonné, Lauze-Deperret, Carra, Gardien, Duprat, Fauchet, Ducos, Boyer-Fonfrède, Lasource, Lesterpt-Beauvais, Duchastel, Minvielle, Lacaze, Lehardy, Boilleau, Antiboul, Viger, and Sillery (though no Girondin), were all executed on 31 October 1793. The twenty-first, Valazé, committed suicide when sentence was passed.
If captured alive, other Girondins who had fled and engaged in the federalist revolt were executed on the order of military commissions, on the basis of having already been declared ‘traitors’ by the Convention, so did not appear before the Revolutionary Tribunal. These included Grangeneuve (deputy) executed 21 December 1793; Rebecqui (deputy) committed suicide 1 May 1794; Guadet and Salle (deputies) executed 20 June 1794; and Barbaroux (deputy) executed 25 June 1794. Pétion and Buzot (both deputies) committed suicide, June 1794.
A number of people associated with the Girondins also met their deaths either following an appearance before the Revolutionary Tribunal or through suicide. These were Gorsas (deputy) executed 7 October 1793; Madame Roland (minister’s wife) executed 8 November 1793; Manuel (deputy) executed 14 November 1793; Roland (Girondin minister) committed suicide 15 November 1793; Rabaut Sainte-Étienne (deputy) executed 5 December 1793; Condorcet (deputy) committed suicide in prison 29 March 1794: Clavière (Girondin minister) committed suicide in prison 8 December 1793; Lebrun (Girondin minister) executed 28 December 1793.
Hébert and other Commune activists and sans-culotte spokesmen, including Momoro, Ronsin, and Vincent, along with the deputy Clootz, were put on trial, accused of conspiracy and complicity in the Foreign Plot. Of a total of twenty men, all but one, Laboureau, were found guilty and executed the same day, 24 March 1794.
Five Dantonist deputies were sent before the Revolutionary Tribunal: Danton, Desmoulins, Philippeaux, Delacroix, and Fabre d’Églantine. Several other deputies were put on trial with them, including Hérault de Séchelles (member of the Committee of Public Safety), Delaunay, Chabot, and Basire; together with General Westermann. They were joined in the dock by several other accused men, who were not politically active but were either involved in the East India Company fraud, or suspected of complicity in the Foreign Plot. All (with the exception of Lulier) were condemned to death—a total of fifteen—and executed on 5 April 1794.
Chaumette (procureur of the Commune), Simond (a deputy associated with Hérault de Séchelles), and the widows of Desmoulins and Hébert were all executed on 13 April 1794.
Of the five Robespierrist deputies, Maximilien Robespierre, Saint-Just, Couthon (all members of the Committee of Public Safety), and Augustin Robespierre, after a brief appearance before the Revolutionary Tribunal to confirm their identities, were executed on 28 (p.292) July 1794. The fifth, Philippe Le Bas (member of the Committee of General Security), pre-empted execution by suicide. Along with Robespierre, and over the two ensuing days, 107 of his friends and allies perished in what became the biggest mass execution that took place in Paris.
Other high-profile revolutionary politicians who also perished included d’Orléans (deputy) executed 6 November 1793; Bailly (former deputy) executed 12 November 1793; Barnave (former deputy) executed 29 November 1793; Kersaint (former deputy) executed 5 December 1793; Thouret, Le Chapelier, and d’Epresménil (former deputies) executed 24 April 1794; and Jacques Roux, sans-culotte spokesman who, on hearing that he was to be sent before the Revolutionary Tribunal, stabbed himself in a courtroom on 14 January 1794; he died on 10 February.
This is by no means an exhaustive list. Other people died as an indirect consequence of the politicians’ terror; some implicated as ‘fellow conspirators’; some killed in the federalist revolts; some died in prison. The families of the victims, mostly women and children, suffered the loss of a parent or spouse, a brother or a son. Many were later accorded small pensions in recognition of what they had suffered, though a few were left in penury and had to live the rest of their lives under the stigma of their relatives’ reputations. Of all the victims of the politicians’ terror, it was these survivors, perhaps, who paid the highest price.