‘Peace with Honour’: From San Stefano to Berlin
In the final stages of the crisis, aside from threatening the use of the fleet and the transfer of Indian troops to Malta, Disraeli encouraged in India the solidarity of Muslim volunteers with the Caliph of the Sunni world, the Ottoman Sultan. He won Salisbury over to his policy of formal defence and possible division of the Ottoman Empire. The cooperation with Austria‐Hungary was made possible not so much by Disraeli's offers, as by the demands of the Russians at Adrianople and San Stefano. At the height of the war crisis, Disraeli calmly waited for Russia to approach him with a request for separate negotiations, which it did. At the Congress of Berlin, Disraeli continued to pursue policies based on threats and deterrence. It was here that it became clear that in the future he envisaged as Britain's main ally in the Balkans not the Ottoman, but the Austro‐Hungarian Empire.
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