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Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials$
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C. Michael Roland

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199571574

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.001.0001

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Reduced variables and characteristic relaxation times

Reduced variables and characteristic relaxation times

(p.199) 6 Reduced variables and characteristic relaxation times
Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

C. M. Roland

Oxford University Press

Time—temperature superpositioning is a common method to extend the range of viscoelastic data. Master curves can be calculated that cover many decades of time or frequency, and in principle enable properties to be predicted for times that are not experimentally accessible. Examples are given for dynamic and transient moduli, failure properties, and friction coefficients. However, the time—temperature superposition principle breaks down in the softening zone, which can lead to large errors in extrapolation of measured data. The cause of this breakdown is discussed. A recent development concerning the dynamics in condensed matter is the discovery of density scaling, whereby relaxation times and viscosities measured at different state points superpose as a function of temperature and density. The origin of this scaling behavior and its application are considered. Finally, the characteristic relaxation times of liquids and polymers are enumerated, along with their unanticipated invariance to thermodynamic conditions when the structural relaxation time is constant.

Keywords:   time–temperature superposition principle, density scaling, William–Landel–Ferry (WLF) equation, thermorheological complexity, Arrhenius behavior, dynamic crossover, VFTH equation, potential energy, virial pressure

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