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Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials$
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C. Michael Roland

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199571574

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.001.0001

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Constitutive modeling, non-linear behavior, and the stress-optic law

Constitutive modeling, non-linear behavior, and the stress-optic law

(p.160) 5 Constitutive modeling, non-linear behavior, and the stress-optic law
Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

C. M. Roland

Oxford University Press

Constitutive modeling of the stress—strain response of rubbery polymers is described, with an emphasis on the limits to linearity for both neat and filled rubber (the latter due to the Payne effect). Deviations from the Boltzmann superposition principle (time—strain invariance) under reversing strain histories are reviewed, including a discussion of the Mullins effect. The chapter also reviews the application of the stress optic law and the conditions causing its breakdown—internal stress, the glass transition, orientational coupling, and creep recovery. Different empirical rules for nonlinear flow are considered, including the Cox—Merz rule and the relations of Laun and Gleissle.

Keywords:   constitutive equations, linearity, time invariance, Boltzmann equation, K-BKZ equation, Mooney–Rivlin equation, reversing strain deformations, birefringence, dichroic ratio, internal stress, stress optic law, nematic coupling, Cox–Merz rule, Mullins effect, Payne effect

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