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Animal MigrationA Synthesis$
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E.J. Milner-Gulland, John M. Fryxell, and Anthony R.E. Sinclair

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199568994

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568994.001.0001

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Energy gain and use during animal migration

Energy gain and use during animal migration

Chapter:
(p.52) Chapter 5 Energy gain and use during animal migration
Source:
Animal Migration
Author(s):

Nir Sapir

Patrick J. Butler

Anders Hedenström

Martin Wikelski

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568994.003.0005

A balance of energy gain and use is needed during migration to safeguard against starvation and to minimize the costs of body mass overloading due to excessive lipid deposition. This chapter addresses how this is achieved throughout the four principal stages of animal migration: preparatory, movement, stopover, and arrival. It first discusses how lipid loading may be limited by ecological (e.g., food abundance), physiological (e.g., digestive capacity), and geomagnetic factors, as well as by annual routine events (e.g., the timing of feather moult) and the animal's migration strategy. The chapter then deals with environmental effects on energy use and discusses the energetics of barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) migrating from Svalbard to Scotland. It proposes that combining accelerometry to provide behavioural data with estimates of metabolic rate may substantially improve our understanding of the causes, mechanisms, patterns, and consequences of animal migration.

Keywords:   accelerometry, barnacle geese, cross-country flight, digestive capacity, energetics, fat loading, feather moult, migration strategy, stopover

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