Microscopic Physics of Quantum Liquids
There are two ways to study quantum liquids. One is the fully microscopic treatment, which can be realised either by numerical simulations of the many-body problem, or for some special ranges of the material parameters, analytically. The other is a phenomenological approach in terms of effective theories. The hierarchy of the effective theories corresponds to the low-frequency, long-wavelength dynamics of quantum liquids in different ranges of frequency. This chapter discusses the microscopic (atomic) physics of quantum liquids which is the analog of the Theory of Everything — the Planck scale physics, difference between microscopic particles and emerging quasiparticles, the interplay of microscopic and effective symmetries, the origin of fundamental constants and hierarchy of Planck energy scales in the ‘Theory of Everything’, vacuum pressure and vacuum energy and scenario of vanishing of cosmological constant. These are considered using the model of weakly interacting Bose gas, the model of quantum liquid, and the real liquid 4He.
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