This chapter discusses time-dependent current-density-functional theory (TDCDFT). It first asks under what circumstances one should choose the current density as basic variable, instead of the particle density. There are several reasons: a current-based formulation is more suitable for constructing functionals beyond the adiabatic approximation. Furthermore, the current is the natural variable to describe coupling to electromagnetic fields and vector potentials. The basic existence theorems of TDCDFT are proved, and several exact properties and the linear-response regime are discussed. The second half of the chapter deals with the so-called Vignale-Kohn functional, which is a local and frequency-dependent approximation to the exchange-correlation vector potential. The Vignale-Kohn functional is expressed in terms of viscoelastic stresses in the electron liquid. Several applications in the linear-response regime and in real time are presented. The Vignale-Kohn functional works well for describing dissipative effects in collective, plasmon-like electron dynamics.
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