Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Law of Command Responsibility$

Guénaël Mettraux

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199559329

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559329.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 23 October 2018

(p.285) Bibliography

(p.285) Bibliography

Source:
The Law of Command Responsibility
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Books

K. Ambos, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts: Ansätze einer Dogmatisierung (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2004).

C. Bassiouni, Crimes against Humanity in International Criminal Law (The Hague: Kluwer, 1998, 2nd revised edition).

I. Bantekas, Principles of Direct and Superior Responsibility in International Humanitarian Law (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003).

I. Bantekas & S. Nash, International Criminal Law (London: Routledge Cavendish, 2007, 3rd edition).

G. Boas & W. Schabas, International Criminal Law Developments in the Case Law of the ICTY (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003).

G. Boas, J. Bischoff & N. Reid, International Criminal Law Practitioner Library—Volume I: Forms of Responsibility in International Criminal Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

N. Boister and R. Cryer, The Tokyo International Military Tribunal: A Reappraisal (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

M. Bothe, K. Partsch & W. Solf, New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts—Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (The Hague/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1982).

A. Cassese, P. Gaeta & J.R.W.D. Jones (eds.), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 3 Volumes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

A. Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, 2008).

S. Chesterman & C. Lehnardt, From Mercenaries to Market: The Rise and Regulation of Private Military Companies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

A. Clapham, Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

R. Cryer, Prosecuting International Crimes: Selectivity and the International Criminal Law Regime (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

S. Darcy, Collective Responsibility and Accountability under International Law (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007).

R.V. Dellums, The Dellums Committee Hearings on War Crimes in Vietnam: An Inquiry into Command Responsibility in Southeast Asia (New York: Vintage Books, 1972).

R. Dixon & K. Khan, Archbold International Criminal Courts: Practice, Procedure, and Evidence (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2003).

D. Fleck (ed.), The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, 2008).

L. Friedman, The Law of War, A Documentary History, 2 Volumes (London: Random House, 1972).

(p.286) J.-M. Henckaerts & L. Doswald-Beck, Customary International Humanitarian Law, Volumes I and II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005–2006).

E. La Haye, War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflicts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

R. Lael, The Yamashita Precedent: War Crimes and Command Responsibility (Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1982).

T. McCormack & G. Simpson, The Law of War Crimes: National and International Approaches (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997).

D. McGoldrick, P. Rowe & E. Donnelly (eds.), The Permanent International Criminal Court—Legal and Policy Issues (Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing, 2004).

T. Meron, The Humanization of International Law (The Hague: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006).

G. Mettraux, International Crimes and the ad hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

G. Mettraux, Perspectives on the Nuremberg Trial (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

V. Morris & M. Scharf, An Insider's Guide to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Volumes 1–2 (Ardsley: Transnational Publishers Inc., 1995).

V. Morris & M. Scharf, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Volumes 1–2 (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Publishers, 1998).

M. Osiel, Obeying Orders: Atrocity, Military Discipline, and the Law of War (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1999).

C. Pilloud, Y. Sandoz, C. Swinarski, & B. Zimmermann (eds.), Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987).

R. Pritchard & S. Magbauna Zaide (eds.), The Tokyo War Crimes Trial (New York/London: Garland, 1981).

S. Ratner & J. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

A. Reel, The Case of General Yamashita (London: Octagon Books, 1971).

B. Röling & C.F. Rüter (eds.), The Tokyo Judgement, The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMFTE), 2 Volumes (Amsterdam: APA-University Press Amsterdam, 1977).

P. Rowe, The Permanent International Criminal Court: Legal and Policy Issues (Oxford: Hart Publisher, 2004).

P. Rowe, The Impact of Human Rights Law on Armed Forces (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Y. Sandoz, C. Swinarski & B. Zimmermann (eds.), Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (Geneva: ICRC, Martin Nijhoff Publishers, 1987).

W. Schabas, The UN International Criminal Tribunals: The Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

G. Simpson, War Crimes Law (Aldershot: Ashgate/Dartmouth, 2004).

V. Tadros, Criminal Responsibility (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

R. Thakur & P. Malcontent, From Sovereign Impunity to International Accountability—The Search for Justice in a World of States (Tokyo/New York/Paris: United Nations University Press, 2004).

(p.287) UK Ministry of Defence, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004).

E. van Sliedregt, The Criminal Responsibility of Individuals for Violations of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2003).

G. Werle, Principles of International Criminal Law (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2005).

G. Werle, Völkerstrafrecht (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2007).

L. Zegveld, Accountability of Armed Opposition Groups in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Articles and Essays

K. Ambos, ‘Joint Criminal Enterprise and Command Responsibility’, 5(1) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 159 (2007).

K. Ambos, ‘Superior Responsibility’, in A. Cassese et al. (eds.), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Volume 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 823.

R. Arens, ‘Vicarious Punishment and War Crimes Prosecution: The Civil War or Alice Through the Looking Glass’, Washington University Law Quarterly, 62 (1951).

R. Arnold, ‘Command Responsibility: A Case Study of Alleged Violations of the Laws of War at Khiam Detention Centre’, 2 Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 191 (2002).

H. Arsanjani, ‘The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court’, 93 American Journal of International Law, 22 (1999).

S. Arthurs, ‘A Foolish Consistency: How Refusing to Review Ford v. Garcia's Invited Error Demonstrates the Eleventh Circuit's Prioritization of Procedure Over Justice’, 72 University of Cincinnati Law Review, 1707 (2004).

I. Bantekas, ‘The Contemporary Law of Superior Responsibility’, 93(3) American Journal of International Law, 573 (1999).

C. Bassiouni, ‘Repression of the Breaches of the Geneva Conventions’, 8 Rutgers-Camden Law Journal, 185 (1977).

J. Berger, ‘The Legal Nature of War Crimes and the Problem of Superior Command’, 38(6) American Political Science Review, 1203 (December 1944).

T. Blumenstock and W. Pittman, ‘Prosecutor v Naser Orić: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Judgment of Srebrenica's Muslim Wartime Commander’, 19 Leiden Journal of International Law, 1077 (2006).

S. Boelaert-Suominen, ‘Prosecuting Superiors for Crimes Committed By Subordinates: A Discussion of the First Significant Case Law Since the Second World War’, 41(4) Virginia Journal of International Law, 747 (2001).

B. Bonafe, ‘Finding a Proper Role for Command Responsibility’, 5 Journal of International Criminal Justice, 599 (2007).

B.H. Brady, ‘Notice Provisions for U.S. Citizens Contractor Employees Serving with the Armed Forces of the United States in the Field: Time to Reflect their Assimilated Status in Government Contracts’, 147 Military Law Review, 1 (1995).

J. Brooker, ‘Ford v. Garcia: A Puzzling Fusion of the Command Responsibility Doctrine with the Torture Victim Protection Act’, 28(3) North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, 701 (2003).

(p.288) W. Burke-White, ‘Reframing Impunity: Applying Liberal International Law Theory to an Analysis of Amnesty Legislation’, 42 Harvard International Law Journal, 467 (2001).

W. Burnett, ‘Command responsibility and a case study of the criminal responsibility of Israeli military commanders for the pogrom at Shatila and Sabra’, 107 Military Law Review, 71 (1985).

L. Cameron, ‘Private Military Companies: Their Status under International Humanitarian Law and its Impact on their Regulation’, 88 International Review of the Red Cross, 573 (2006).

B. Carnahan, ‘The Law of War in the United States Court of Military Appeals’, 20 Revue de Droit Pénal Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre, 331 (1981).

A. Cassese, ‘The ICTY: A Living and Vital Reality’, 2(2) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 585 (2004).

A. Ching, ‘Evolution of the Command Responsibility Doctrine in Light of the Čelebići Decision of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, 25(1) North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, 167 (1999).

R. Clark, ‘Medina: An Essay on the Principles of Criminal Liability for Homicide’, 5 Rutgers-Camden Law Journal, 59 (1973–1974).

J. Cockayne, ‘The Global Reorganization of Legitimate Violence: Military Entrepreneurs and the Private Face of International Humanitarian Law’, 88 International Review of the Red Cross, 459 (Number 863, 2006).

M. Cottier, ‘Did NATO forces commit war crimes during the Kosovo conflict? Reflections on the prosecutor's report of 13 June 2000’, in H. Fischer, C. Kress, S.R. Lüder (eds.), International and national prosecution of crimes under international law: current developments (Berlin: Berlin Verlag, 2001).

W. Cowles, ‘High Government Officials as War Criminals’, 39 American Society of International Law Proceedings, 54 (1945).

G. Creighton, ‘Superior Orders and Command Responsibility in Canadian Criminal Law’, 38 University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review, 1 (1980).

C. Crowe, ‘Command Responsibility in the Former Yugoslavia: The Chances for Successful Prosecution’, 29 University of Richmond Law Review, 191 (1994).

R. Cryer, ‘The Boundaries of Liability in International Criminal Law, or Selectivity by Stealth’, 6 Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 3 (2001).

R. Cryer, ‘Neither Here nor There? The Status of International Criminal Jurisprudence in the International and UK Legal Orders’ in M. Bohlander and K. Kaikobad (eds.), Law, The State and Justice: Essays in Honour of Colin Warbrick (The Hague: Brill, in press, 2008), 155.

M. Damaška, ‘The Shadow Side of Command Responsibility’, 49(3) American Journal of Comparative Law, 455 (2001).

A. D'Amato, ‘Superior Orders vs. Command Responsibility’, 80 American Journal of International Law, 604 (1986).

A. Danner & J. Martinez, ‘Guilty Associations: Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development of International Criminal Law’, 93(1) California Law Review, 75 (2005).

S. Darcy, ‘Imputed Criminal Liability and the Goals of International Justice’, 20 Leiden Journal of International Law, 377 (2007).

A. De Andrade, ‘Les supérieurs hiérarchiques’, in H. Ascensio et al. (eds.), Droit International Pénal (Paris: Pedone, 2000), 201.

(p.289) C. Del Ponte, ‘Investigation and Prosecution of Large-Scale Crimes at the International Level: the Experience of the ICTY’, 4(3) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 539 (2006).

D.S. Donnelly-Cole, ‘Not Just A Few Bad Apples: The Prosecution of Collective Violence’, 5 Washington University Global Studies Law Review, 159 (2006).

J. Douglass, ‘High Command Case: A Study in Staff and Command Responsibility’, 6 The International Lawyer, 686 (1972).

M. Drumbl, ‘Collective Violence and Individual Punishment: The Criminality of Mass Atrocity’, 99 Northwestern University Law Review, 539 (2004).

W. G. Eckhardt, ‘Command Criminal Responsibility: A Plea for A Workable Standard’, 97 Military Law Review, 1 (1982).

W. G. Eckhardt, ‘Nuremberg—Fifty Years: Accountability and Responsibility’, 65 University of Missouri—Kansas City Law Review, 1 (1996).

W. G. Eckhardt, ‘My Lai: An American Tragedy’, 68 University of Missouri—Kansas City Law Review, 671 (2000).

S. Feldstein, ‘Applying the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Case Study of Henry Kissinger’, 92 California Law Review, 1663 (2004).

W. Fenrick, ‘Article 28’, in O. Triffterer (ed.), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesllschaft, 1999), 515.

W. Fenrick, ‘The Prosecution of Unlawful Attack Cases before the ICTY’, in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Volume 7 (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2004), 153.

W. Fenrick, ‘Some International Law Problems Related to Prosecutions before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, 6 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 103 (1995).

H. Fisher, ‘[Command Responsibility—Article 28]: Introduction’, 39 The Military Law and Law of War Review, 78 (2000).

C. Fox, ‘Closing a Loophole in Accountability for War Crimes: Successor Commanders' Duty To Punish Known Past Offenses’, 55(2) Case Western Reserve Law Review, 443 (2004).

C. Garraway, ‘Responsibility of Command—A Poisoned Chalice?’, in R. Arnold & P. A. Hildbrand (eds.), International Humanitarian Law and the 21st Century's Conflicts—Changes and Challenges (Lausanne: Editions interuniversitaires suisses—Edis, 2005), 117.

C. Garraway, ‘Command Responsibility: Victors' Justice or Just Desserts?’, in R. Burchill et al. (eds.), International Conflict and Security Law—Essays in Memory of Hilaire McCoubrey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 68.

E.C. Gillard, ‘Business Goes to War: Private Military/Security Companies and International Humanitarian Law’, 88 International Review of the Red Cross, 525 (2006).

L. C. Green, ‘War Crimes, Extradition and Command Responsibility’, 14 Israeli Yearbook of Human Rights, 17 (1984).

L. C. Green, ‘Superior Orders and Command Responsibility’, 27 Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 167 (1989).

L. C. Green, ‘Command Responsibility in International Humanitarian Law’, 5 Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems, 319 (1995).

C. Greenwood, ‘Command Responsibility and the Hadžihasanović Decision’, 2(2) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 598 (2004).

(p.290) E. Grei, ‘The Evolution of Individual Criminal Responsibility under International Law’, 81 International Review of the Red Cross, 550 (1999).

R. Grondin, ‘La Responsabilité Pénale du Chef Militaire: un Défaut d'Agir mais pas un Défaut d'Etat d'Esprit’, 34(2) Revue Générale de Droit, 309 (2004).

H. Gulam, ‘Command Responsibility: International and Australian Perspectives’, 28(5) Criminal Law Journal, 287 (2004).

V. Hansen, ‘What's Good for the Goose is Good for the Gander: Lessons from Abu Ghraib: Time for the United States to Adopt a Standard of Command Responsibility Towards its Own’, 42 Gonzaga Law Review, 335 (2006–2007).

S. Hendin, ‘Command Responsibility and Superior Orders in the Twentieth Century—A Century of Evolution’, 10 Murdoch University Electronic Journal, 1 (2003).

M. Henzelin, ‘Les ‘Raisons de Savoir’ du Supérieur Hiérarchique qu'un Crime va Etre Commis ou a été Commis par un Subordonné—Examen de la Jurisprudence des Tribunaux Pénaux Internationaux pour l'ex-Yougoslavie et le Rwanda’, in P. Tavernier (ed.), Actualité de la Jurisprudence Pénale Internationale (Louvain: Bruylant, 2004), 81.

C. Hessler, ‘Command Responsibility for War Crimes’, 82 Yale Law Journal, 1274 (1973).

K. Howard, ‘Command Responsibility for War Crimes’, 21 Journal of Public Law, 7 (1972).

D. Hunt, ‘The International Criminal Court—High Hopes, “Creative Ambiguity” and an Unfortunate Mistrust in International Judges’, 2 Journal of International Criminal Justice, 56 (2004).

J. Insco, ‘Defense of Superior Orders Before Military Commissions’, 13(2) Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, 389 (2003).

K.R. Jacobson, ‘Doing Business with the Devil: The Challenges of Prosecuting Corporate Officials whose Business Transactions Facilitate War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity’, 56 Air Force Law Review, 167 (2005).

B. Jia, ‘The Doctrine of Command Responsibility in International Law’, 45 Netherlands International Law Review, 325 (1998).

B. Jia, ‘The Doctrine of Command Responsibility: Current Problems’, 3 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 131 (2000).

B. Jia, ‘The Doctrine of Command Responsibility Revisited’, 3 Chinese Journal of International Law, 1 (2004).

K. Keith, ‘The Mens Rea of Superior Responsibility as Developed by ICTY Jurisprudence’, 14 Leiden Journal of International Law, 617 (2001).

H. Kelsen, ‘Collective and Individual Responsibility in International Law with Particular Regard to the Punishment of War Criminals’, 31 California Law Review, 530 (1943).

H. Koh, ‘Separating Myth from Reality about Corporate Responsibility Litigation’, 7 Journal of International Economic Law, 263 (2004).

G. Komarow, ‘Individual Responsibility under International Law: The Nuremberg Principles in Domestic Legal Systems’, 29(1) International and Comparative Law Quarterly 21 (January 1980).

B. Landrum, ‘The Yamashita war crimes trial: command responsibility then and now’, 149 Military Law Review, 293 (1995).

J. Lane, ‘The Mass Graves at Dasht-e Leili: Assessing U.S. Liability for Human Rights Violations During the War in Afghanistan’, 34 California Western International Law Journal, 145 (2003).

(p.291) E. Langston, ‘The Superior Responsibility Doctrine in International Law: Historical Continuities, Innovation and Criminality: Can East Timor's Special Panels Bring Militia Leaders to Justice?’, 4 International Criminal Law Review, 141 (2004).

N. Laviolette, ‘Commanding Rape: Sexual Violence, Command Responsibility, and the Prosecution of Superiors by the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda’, 36 Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 93 (1998).

H. Levie, ‘Some Comments on Professor D'Amato's “Paradox”’, 80 American Journal of International Law, 608 (1986).

H. Levie, ‘Command Responsibility’, 8 United States Air Force Academy Journal of Legal Studies, 1 (1997).

A. Levy, ‘Criminal Responsibility of Individuals in International Law’, 12 University of Chicago Law Review, 313 (1947).

M. Lippman, ‘The Evolution and Scope of Command Responsibility’, 13 Leiden Journal of International Law, 139 (2000).

M. Lippman, ‘Humanitarian Law: The Uncertain Contours of Command Responsibility’, 9 Tulsa Journal of Comparative & International Law, 1 (2001).

L. Malone, ‘The Appointment of General Yaron: Continuing Impunity for the Sabra and Shatilla Massacres’, 32(2) Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 287 (2000).

J. Maogoto, ‘Presiding Over the Ex-President: A Look at Superior Responsibility in Light of the Kosovo Indictment’, 7(1) Deakin Law Review, 173 (2002).

J. Martinez, ‘Understanding Mens Rea in Command Responsibility—From Yamashita to Blaškić and Beyond’, 5 Journal of International Criminal Justice, 638 (2007).

R. May & S. Powles, ‘Command Responsibility—A New Basis of Criminal Liability in English Law?’, 2002 Criminal Law Review, 363 (2002).

T. McCormack et al., ‘The International Law Commission's Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind: An Appraisal of the Substantive Provisions’, 5 Criminal Law Forum, 1 (1994).

C. Meloni, ‘Command Responsibility: Accomplice Liability in the Crime of Subordinates or Separate Offence of the Superior?’, 5 Journal of International Criminal Justice, 619 (2007).

T. Meron, ‘Revival of Customary Humanitarian Law’, 99 American Journal of International Law, 817 (2005).

T. Meron, ‘Leaders, Courtiers and Command Responsibility in Shakespeare’, in M. Schmitt & J. Pejic, International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines—Essays in Honor of Yoram Dinstein, Chapter 15 (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007), 403.

G. Mettraux, ‘Current Development’, 1 International Criminal Law Review, 261 (2002).

G. Mettraux, ‘US Courts-Martial and the Armed Conflict in the Philippines (1899–1902)—Their Contribution to National Case Law on War Crimes’ 1(1) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 135 (2003).

A. Mitchell, ‘Failure to Halt, Prevent or Punish: The Doctrine of Command Responsibility for War Crimes’, 22(3) Sydney Law Review, 381 (2000).

J. Monroe, ‘Applying the Responsible Corporate Officer and Conscious Avoidance Doctrines in the Context of the Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal’, 91 Iowa Law Review, 1367 (2006).

D. Mundis, ‘Crimes of the Commander: Superior Responsibility Under Article 7(3) of the ICTY Statute’, in G. Boas and W. Schabas (eds.), International Criminal Law Developments in the Case Law of the ICTY (Leiden: Nijhoff, 2003), 239.

(p.292) P. Murphy, ‘The Criminal Responsibility of Individuals for Violations of International Humanitarian Law’, 2(3) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 932 (2004).

S. D. Murphy, ‘Acquittal of Salvadoran Generals in Nuns' Deaths’, 95(2) American Journal of International Law, 394 (2001).

S. D. Murphy, ‘Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: Instructions for Military Commissions on Trying Aliens Charged with Terrorism’, 96 American Journal of International Law, 706 (2003).

V. Nehrlich, ‘Superior Responsibility under Article 28 ICCSt.: For What Exactly is the Superior Held Responsible?’, 5 Journal of International Criminal Justice, 665 (2007).

M. Neuner, ‘Superior Responsibility and the ICC Statute’, in G. Carlizzi et al. (eds.), La Corte Penale Internazionale—Problemi e Prospettive (Napoli, Vivarium, 2003), 259.

M. Nybondas, ‘Civilian Superior Responsibility in the Kordić Case’, 50 Netherlands International Law Review, 59 (2003).

E. O'Brien, ‘The Nuremberg Principles, Command Responsibility, and the Defense of Captain Rockwood’, 149 Military Law Review, 275 (1995).

W. O'Brien, ‘Law of War, Command Responsibility and Vietnam’, 60 Georgetown Law Journal, 605 (1972).

M. O'Connor, ‘Command Responsibility in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, in CEELI, Practical Guide to War Crimes Prosecution in Bosnia and Herzegovina (American Bar Association, 2004), 49.

J. Olaneff, ‘Holding a Head of State Liable for War Crimes: Command Responsibility and the Milošević Trial’, 27(2) Suffolk Transnational Law Review, 327 (2004).

A. O'Reilly, ‘Command Responsibility: A Call to Realign the Doctrine with Principles of Individual Accountability and Retributive Justice’, 40(1) Gonzaga Law Review, 127 (2004).

A. O'Rourke, ‘Recent Development: Joint Criminal Enterprise and Brđanin: Misguided Overcorrection’, 47 Harvard International Law Journal, 307 (2006).

M. Osiel, ‘Milošević & Hussein on Trial: PANEL 2: Perspectives on Transnational Justice: Collective Memory, Command Responsibility, and the Political Psychology of Leadership: Modes of Participation in Mass Atrocity’, 38 Cornell International Law Journal, 793 (2005).

M. Osiel, ‘The Banality of Good: Aligning Incentives against Mass Atrocity’, 105 Columbia Law Review, 1751 (2005).

W. Parks, ‘Command Responsibility for War Crimes’, 62 Military Law Review, 1 (1973).

J.J. Paust, ‘My Lai and Vietnam: Myths and Leader Responsibility’, 57 Military Law Review, 99 (1972).

J.J. Paust, ‘Threats to Accountability after Nuremberg: Crimes against Humanity, Leader Responsibility and National Fora’, 12 New York Law School Journal of Human Rights, 547 (1995).

J.J. Paust, ‘Sanctions against Non-State Actors for Violations of International Law’, 8 ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 417 (2002).

J. Pejić, ‘Terrorist Acts and Groups: A Role for International Law?’, 75 The British Year Book of International Law, 71 (2004).

S. Perkins, ‘The Failure to Protect: Expanding the Scope of Command Responsibility to the United Nations at Srebrenica’, 62(2) University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review, 193 (2004).

(p.293) B. Perrin, ‘Promoting Compliance of Private Security Companies with International Humanitarian Law’, 88 International Review of the Red Cross, 613 (Number 863, 2006).

A. Prévost, ‘Race and War Crimes: The 1945 War Crimes Trial of General Tomoyuki Yamashita’, 14 Human Rights Quarterly, 303 (1992).

N. Reid, ‘Bridging the Conceptual Chasm: Superior Responsibility as the Missing Link between State and Individual Responsibility under International Law’, 18(4) Leiden Journal of International Law, 795 (2005).

A.P.V. Rogers, ‘Command Responsibility under the Law of War’, available online at http://www.lcil.cam.ac.uk/lectures/lecture_papers.php.

P. Rowe, Reviewer [Principles of Direct and Superior Responsibility in International Humanitarian Law], 74 The British Year Book of International Law, 437 (2003).

P. Rowe, ‘The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, A Challenge to Impunity’, 73 The British Yearbook of International Law, 377 (2002).

P. Rowe, ‘Maintaining Discipline in United Nations Peace Support Operations: The Legal Quagmire for Military Contingents’, 5 Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 45 (2000).

S. Russell-Brown, ‘The Last Line of Defense: the Doctrine of Command Responsibility and Gender Crimes in Armed Conflict’, 22(1) Wisconsin International Law Journal, 125 (2004).

P. Saland, ‘International Criminal Law Principles’, in R. Lee (ed.), The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999), 204.

D. Sarooshi, ‘Command Responsibility and the Blaškić Case’, 50(2) The International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 452 (2001).

W. Schabas, ‘General Principles of Criminal Law in the International Criminal Court Statute (Part III)’, 6 European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 84 (1998).

M. Shahabuddeen, ‘Policy-Oriented Law in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, in L. Vohrah et al. (eds.), Man's Inhumanity to Man—Essays on International Law in Honour of Antonio Cassese (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2003), 889.

Y. Shany & K. Michael, ‘The Case against Ariel Sharon: Revisiting the Doctrine of Command Responsibility’, 34(4) New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 797 (2002).

J. Sifton, ‘United States Military and Central Intelligence Agency Personnel Abroad: Plugging the Prosecutorial Gaps’, 43(2) Harvard Journal on Legislation, 497 (2006).

G. Simpson, ‘Didactic and Dissident Histories in War Crimes Trials’, 60 Albany Law Review, 801 (1997).

P.W. Singer, ‘War, Profits, and the Vacuum of Law: Privatized Military Firms and International Law’, 42 Columbia Journal of Translational Law, 521 (2004).

A. Singh, ‘Criminal Responsibility for Non-State Civilian Superiors Lacking De Jure Authority: A Comparative Review of the Doctrine of Superior Responsibility and Parallel Doctrines in National Criminal Laws’, 28(2) Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 267 (2005).

(p.294) M. Smidt, ‘Yamashita, Medina, and beyond: command responsibility in contemporary military operations’, 164 Military Law Review, 155 (2000).

J.W. Smith, ‘A Few Good Scapegoats: The Abu Ghraib Courts-Martial and the Failure of the Military Justice System’, 27 Whittier Law Review, 671 (2006).

O.C. Snyder, ‘Liability for Negative Conduct’, 35 Virginia Law Review, 446 (1949).

P. Speyer, ‘Les Crimes de Guerre par Omission’, Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie, 903 (1949–50).

M. Stryszak, ‘Command Responsibility: How Much Should a Commander be Expected to Know?’, 11 United States Air Force Academy Journal of Legal Studies, 27 (2001).

O. Swaak-Goldman, ‘Prosecutor v. Delalić: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia judgment on command responsibility and international character of the Bosnian conflict’, 93(2) American Journal of International Law, 514 (1999).

O. Triffterer, ‘Causality, a Separate Element of the Doctrine of Superior Responsibility as Expressed in Article 28 Rome Statute?’, 15 Leiden Journal of International Law, 179 (2002).

O. Triffterer, ‘Command Responsibility’, in C. Prittwitz et al., Festschrift für Klaus Lüdersen—Zum 70. Geburstag, am 2 Mai 2002 (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlaggesellschaft, 2002), 437.

A. Vagts, ‘Military Command and Military Government’, 59 Political Science Quarterly, 248 (1944).

G. Vetter, ‘Command Responsibility of Non-Military Superiors in the International Criminal Court (ICC)’, 25(1) The Yale Journal of International Law, 89 (2000).

C. Walker & D. Whyte, ‘Contracting out War? Private Military Companies, Law and Regulation in the United Kingdom’, 54(3) International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 651 (2005).

R. Wasserstrom, ‘The Responsibility of the Individual for War Crimes’, in V. Held et al. (eds.), Philosophy, Morality and International Affairs (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 47.

T. Weigend, ‘Bernerkungen zur Vorgesetztenverantwortlichkeit im Völkerstrafrecht’, in M. Burgstaller et al. (eds.), Zeitschrfit für die Gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft (Berlin: De Gruyter Recht, 2004), 999.

J. Williamson, ‘Command Responsibility in the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda’, 13(3) Criminal Law Forum, 365 (2002).

T. Wu & Y. Kang, ‘Criminal Liability for the Actions of Subordinates—The Doctrine of Command Responsibility and its Analogues in United States Law’, 38 Harvard International Law Journal, 272 (1997).

J.C. Zarate, ‘The Emergence of a New Dog of War: Private International Security Companies, International Law, and the New World Order’, 34 Stanford Journal of International Law, 75 (1998).

W. Zhu, ‘The Doctrine of Command Responsibility as Applied to Civilian Leaders: The ICTR and the Kayishema Case’, in Sienho Yee & Wang Tieya (eds.), International Law in the Post-Cold War World: Essays in Memory of Li Haopei (London: Routledge, 2001), 373.

(p.295) Other relevant material

Human Rights Watch, Getting Away with Torture? Command Responsibility for the U.S. Abuse of Detainees, April 2005, Vol. 17, No. 1(G), available online at (http://www.hrw.org/reports/2005/us0405/us0405.pdf).

B. Ivanisevic, ‘Command Responsibility is not a form of Strict Liability’, Danas, 25 June 2004, available online at http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/06/25/serbia8982.htm.

OSCE, War Crimes Trials Before the Domestic Courts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, March 2005, available online at http://oscebih.org/documents/1407-eng.pdf.

Websites

Official websites of international or internationalized criminal courts and tribunals

Other useful websites containing material relevant to the issue of command responsibility