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The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law$
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Kevin Jon Heller

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199554317

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554317.001.0001

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(p.331) 15 Aftermath
The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law

Kevin Jon Heller

Oxford University Press

This chapter explores the aftermath of the twelve Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT) trials. Section 1 recounts the events that preceded John J. McCloy's appointment as High Commission of Germany in June 1949, focusing on General Clay's review of the NMT convictions, the deactivation of the OCC, and Tribunal IV's surprising decision to reconsider its judgment in Ministries. Section 2 then discusses McCloy's creation of the Advisory Board on War Criminals, which likely violated Control Council Law No. 10, and his decision in mid-1951 to grant clemency to the overwhelming majority of the convicted NMT defendants. Finally, Section 3 explores the events that followed McCloy's clemency decisions, focusing on the work of the U.S.-German Interim Mixed Parole and Clemency Board and its permanent successor.

Keywords:   Aftermath, John J. McCloy, Lucius Clay, Advisory Board on War Criminals, clemency, parole, U.S. war-crimes program, Cold War, Communism, German rearmament

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