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High-Resolution Electron Microscopy$
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John C. H. Spence

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199552757

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552757.001.0001

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SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND Z-CONTRAST

SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND Z-CONTRAST

Chapter:
(p.237) 8 SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND Z-CONTRAST
Source:
High-Resolution Electron Microscopy
Author(s):

JOHN C. H. SPENCE

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552757.003.0008

This chapter first reviews the relationship (by reciprocity) between transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), with a brief history of STEM. The form of the coherent convergent beam patterns used to form bright and dark-field STEM images are discussed in detail, together with experimental examples of the fringes formed between overlapping orders (ronchigrams). The role of partial coherence theory in STEM is outlined. The theory of incoherent dark-field stem with a high angle annular detector is given and its advantages reviewed. Channelling effects and channelling theory are presented. The optimum detector dimensions are analysed and the interpretation of STEM images in its many modes is discussed.

Keywords:   STEM, ronchigrams, partial coherence, detector cutoff, incoherent imaging theory, dark-field STEM

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