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The Paradox of ConstitutionalismConstituent Power and Constitutional Form$

Martin Loughlin and Neil Walker

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199552207

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552207.001.0001

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(p.369) Index

(p.369) Index

Source:
The Paradox of Constitutionalism
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Ackerman, B.
constitutional change, theory of 59–60, 200, 212
Agamben, G. 7, 20n, 296n, 297n, 299
Agnoletto, V. 17, 204, 205
Allott, P. 274, 278n, 285
Altman, W. 289n
Anghie, A. 330
Annan, K. 337
Appiah, K. 291n
Arendt, H. 14, 20, 199, 202, 220n, 221n, 296n, 310n
Augustine, 14, 15
authority
claim by law 133, 135–6, 140, 141–2
founding moment, at the 3, 70, 131
global empire, as 177–9, 183–4
legitimate 147, 150–1
of the people see constituent power
outside law 129–31, 172
authorship of constitution
collective or popular 78, 87, 211
individual 2, 15, 24, 74–5
autonomy
private 153
public 153
Ayres, A. 325n
Bacevich, A. 330n
Badinter, R. 75n
Badiou, A. 194, 196–8, 204, 312
Barbera, A, 173n
Barnett, R.E. 55n
Basta, L. 227n
Bastid, P. 76n
Bauman, Z. 223n
Beck, U. 161n
Behrens, B. 41n
Benjamin, W. 7
Bentham, J. 134
Benton, L. 337n
Benveniste, E. 201
Berghahn, V.R. 323n
Bhabha, H. 191n
Blackstone, W. 43–4
Bobbio, N. 179n
Böckenförde, E.-W.
constituent power, theory of 98–9, 211n, 226n
Bodin, J. 148, 322
Borrows, J. 320n
Bourdieu, P. 321
Bratman, M. 15, 18
Braudel, F. 172n
Brazil
COPAVI 305–9
land reform and rural settlements in 303–5
Brett, A. 320n
Brewer, J. 42n
Brownlie, I. 283n
Brubaker, R. 214n
Cairns, J.W. 43n
Caldwell, P.C. 91n
Canetti, E. 180n
Canovan, M. 107n, 261n
Carozza, P. 7, 186n
Cassese, A. 187n, 278
Castoriadis, C. 14n
Chakrabarty, D. 327n
challenges to constitutional rights
global governance 165–6
pluralism 179–80
politicization 180–1
security concerns 148, 159–64
Cavanagh, J. 338n
Chalmers, D. 8
Chirac, J. 83
Chomsky, N. 322, 335n
Choper, J.H. 186n
Chossudovsky, M. 335n
Christodoulidis, E. 7, 18n, 326n
citizenship 13, 74
civil war
American 59
English 27
Clark, J.C.D. 43
Clarkson, C. 201
cohabitation, practice of 83
Colley, L. 45n, 46n
Collins, H. 200
Condorcet, N. de 70–1, 74–5
constituent power
Central and Eastern Europe, in 222–8
early American conception 50
early British conception 27, 38–48
early French conception 67–79, 173
ethnicity, and 227–8
international community basis 286–90
of the people 1, 5, 18, 21, 97, 198, 213, 216–19, 240, 320–1
(p.370)
paradox of 8, 87, 147
relationship to constituted power 174–9, 203–4, 291–2, 295–8, 317–28
relationship to legal order 132, 134
constituted power
attribution, of 11, 19, 238, 239
government, of 5, 18, 21, 24
representation, of 11, 19
constitutional
actors 325–6
as representation 4, 68, 72, 173, 295–6
conflict 28, 87
conventions 3, 5, 49, 71, 73, 76
imperialism 316 see also constitutional history
moment 99
paradox 148, 149–51, 170
patriotism 6, 102
rights and freedoms 149–51 see also challenges to constitutional rights
spaces or territory 184–7, 297
theory 207–8, 249n
validity 13
constitutional history
American 49–66, 109n, 119
British 5, 27–47
French 5, 67–95, 213–15
German 6, 88–105
imperialism 328–34
international community 270–3
republicanism see republicanism
constitutions
higher law, as 179
language 274–6
modern 1,3, 182
post-modern 184–7
cosmopolitanism 275–6
counter-majoritarian principle 22
Cover, R. 301n, 302
Crisafulli, V. 181n
Cromwell, O. 39
Crown
body politic, as the 28–30
divine right 28, 30–1, 32
in-Parliament 27
restoration of 40–1
royal prerogative 31
Currie, D.P. 54n
Curtis, C. 14n
Dahl, R. 184n, 185
De Gaulle, C. 68, 80–1
Dehousse, R. 264n
democracy
de-imperialization, and 334–8
elections 35–6, 75, 77, 108, 110, 221
legitimacy, and 200–1
liberal 1, 9
lottery, and the 111–12, 114
minorities, and 158
plebeian participation 115–18
presentation, as 195–6
reflexive 197
revolutionary moment 196–7
secular theology, as 17, 22
unity, as 12, 196, 198–200, 207
democratic government 87
Denquin, J.-M. 78n
Derrida, J. 193
Descartes, R. 16–17
Dinstein, Y. 283
Dogliani, M. 180–1
Doyle, M. 329n
Dunn, J. 256n
Dupuy, P-M. 282
Dworkin, R. 144, 159n
Dyzenhaus, D. 7, 134n, 200
Eagleton, T. 312
Elazar, D. 71n
Elkins, S. 53n
Elster, J. 218n, 219n, 223n
Emden, C.S. 46n
Erzberger, M. 272
European
practice 14
Social Forum 17
European Union
constituent power 244–5, 250–2, 261–7
constitutional momentum 258–61
Constitutional Treaty 85, 265, 266, 274–5
democratic basis 253–5, 256
Enlargement 264n
political community, as 313–14, 319
political origins 252–3
Ewing, K. 137
Falk-Moore, S. 301n
Farrand, M. 287n
Fassbender, B. 272n, 278n, 281
Foucault, M. 206, 325
Federal Republic of Germany
balancing constitutional values 96–7
constitutional changes 174
constitutional court 95–6
federal system 94–5
Maastricht Treaty 100–1
protection of individual rights 94
re-unification 99–100
system of judicial review 94
welfare state dimension 103–4
Figgis, J.N. 31n
Fisch, J. 289n
(p.371) Fisher, L. 60n
Fisk, R. 330n
Florence
city republic 109–22, 124n
Fraenkel, E. 93n, 131, 132n
Francis, E.K. 226n
Franck, T. 270, 282
Frankenberg, G. 150n
Frankfurt, H. 311n
Franklin, J.H. 40n, 42n
Friedman, W. 270
Fuller, L. 321
Gadamer, H-G. 336
Gallagher, J. 315, 316
Galtung, J. 337
Gandhi, M. 336, 337
Gardiner, S.R. 38n, 39n
Garton-Ash, T. 223n
Gearty, C. 137, 144
Glasman, M. 199n
globalization
circumstances 1, 83, 84
impact of 170, 172, 176, 190–1
Glorious Revolution see Revolution
Glover, S.D. 37n
God
sovereign right of 27, 31
Godechot, J. 71n, 76n, 78n
Gong, G. 330, 331n
governance
global 315–16
multi-level 169, 170, 185–7, 275
technique, as 325
Griffin, S. 5, 52n, 56n, 200
Griffith, J.A.G. 134
Grimm, D. 224n, 255n, 259n, 276n
Guicciardini, F. 108–14
Guignon, C. 311
Günther, K. 166n
Habermas, J. 6, 14n, 101–3, 147, 185, 257n, 263n, 275, 282, 285, 295, 298
Habermasian
communicative action 154
constituent power 157
discourse theory 153–4
public sphere 102, 158
system of human rights protection 155–6, 158
theory of legitimate law 156–7
Haltern, U. 265n
Hanh, T.N. 337
Hardt, M. 171, 310, 320
Harvey, D. 325n
Häußler, R. 95n
Havemann, P. 329n
Hegel, G.W.F.
civil society 298
Heidegger, M.
Dasein 15, 20
existence/selfhood 15
Heller, H. 92, 103, 180
Henderson, A. 233n
Hobbes, T.
conception of sovereignty 140–1, 322
constitutional moment, theory of 139–40
rational individualism 138
role of judges in legal order 141
Schmitt's critique 139
Hobsbawm, E. 180, 230n
Hobson, J.A. 323
Höffe, O. 152n
Holmes, S. 222n
Honneth, A. 167n
Hopkins, N. 310n
Huber, E.R. 289
human rights 135, 137, 142, 183, 217 see also Habermasian
Hunt, L. 107n
identity
collective 5, 9
reflexive 5, 15
sameness or idem- 9,13, 14
selfhood or ipse- 4, 15
territorial 182
indigenous peoples 320, 331, 333n
individual
autonomy of 298
protection of 9, 69
International Committee of the World Social Forum 18
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 271, 279
International Law
fundamental principles 276–81
International Law Commission 271, 279
Ipsen, H-P. 252n
Isensee, J. 161n
Italy
constitutional theory 172n,174–6, 183n
Ivison, D. 229n
Jaume, L. 5, 67n, 71n, 72n, 74n, 78n, 295
Jellinek, G. 90, 149n
Jennings, I. 231n
Joerges, C. 103n, 166n, 253n
judicial interpretation, role of 142–5, 181
July Regime 77
Kaiserreich
conflict with parliament 88–9
early constitutionalism 6, 88
legitimacy 101
Kaldor, M. 177n
(p.372) Kalyvas, A. 14n, 20n, 250n, 296n
Kant, I.
civil society 298, 331n
constitutional theory 152
nationhood 294n
Karatani, K. 207n
Karl, W. 290n
Keene, E. 330
Kelly, D. 294n, 295n
Kelsen, H.
constituent power 10, 19, 98, 203, 219n
constituted power 238
grundnorm or basic norm 11, 19, 130
international law 287
pure theory of law 9, 130
Kemmerer, A. 270n
Kennedy, E. 14n, 61n
King see Crown
Klabbers, J. 255n, 275n
Klein, C. 88n
Koskenniemi, M. 273, 327n, 330
Kramer, L. 50n
Kristeva, J. 311–12
Kühne, J.-D. 88n
Kymlicka, W. 232n
Lacan, J. 193
Laclau, E. 87n, 88n
Laforest, G. 241n
Larmore, C. 157n, 160n
Laski, H.J. 199
law
attribution to the self 12, 19
criminal 161n
labour 199
representation 19, 11
Roman 322
social integration of 153n, 170
system of norms a 12, 130
law, rule of see rule of law
Leclair, J. 239n
Lefort, C. 193, 202
legal order
formalism 237
system of rules, as 9
unity, as 12, 318n
legal pluralism
emphasis on the individual 292, 301–3, 310n
indigenous societies, and 337
Leibholz, G. 180n
Leino, P. 255n
Lepsius, M.R. 94n
Lepsius, O. 93n
Lerner, H. 235n
Levellers
constitutional theory 35–8, 47–8
Levi, E. 190
liberalism
account of the rule of law 129, 131
anti-liberalism of the common law 134–8
containment of political 22
Lijphart, A. 236
Lindahl, H. 4, 202, 204, 248n
Lindseth, P. 255n
Lintott, A. 107n
Locke, J. 149n, 217, 323
Loughlin, M. 5, 135–6, 144, 148n, 192n, 238, 256n, 286, 295n, 299, 317, 325, 326
Lowenstein, K. 214n
Luhmann, N. 102n, 194, 202, 276
Lyotard, J-F. 14n
MacCormick, N. 238n
MacDonald, R. 282
Machiavelli, N. 108, 114–25, 322
MacMahon, A. 186n
Madison, J. 50
Maduro, M. 266n
Maistre, J. de 1
Majone, G. 253
Mander, J. 337n
Mann, M. 300n
Marx, K. 195, 319, 323
Matthew, H.C.G. 46n
Maus, I. 152n, 155n
McCormick, J. 6, 107n, 115n, 138n
McDough, M. 272
McNair, A.D. 283
Mead, G.H. 218n
Merleau-Ponty, M. 19n
Mezzanotte, C. 181n
Michelman, F.I. 211, 249n
Mitterrand, F. 83
Möllers, C. 6, 200
Mommsen, W. 315, 316
Montesquieu, C.L. 311
Moravcsik, A. 255n
Moreno, L. 233n
Morgan, E.S. 32n, 34
Morgenthau, H. 322
Morrow, J.H. 332n
Mortati, C. 180, 181n, 260n
Mosler, H. 272
multinational see plurinational sites
Naess, A. 337
Nancy, J-L. 201
Napoleon, V. 320n
Narlikar, A. 321n
(p.373) nationalism
British 45
French 76, 84
Quebec 241
Scottish 242
state 190, 225, 312–13
sub-state 7, 190, 229–31, 235–6
nationhood 69, 76, 292, 309–12
natural rights 72, 152
Nazi regime
constituent power 132
critical of legal form 93
‘dual state’, as a 131–2
Negri, A.
constitutional theory 6, 171, 176–9, 184, 299, 310, 320
Nickel, R. 7
Nietzsche, F. 23, 336
Nipperdey, T. 89n
normativity
constitutional order 12, 60–1, 130, 132, 135–6, 143–5, 156, 181
norms
creation of 10, 11, 60
Offe, C. 226n
Ontology of the collective self see identity (collective)
Open Method of Coordination (OMC) 254n
Orren, K. 57
Osterhammel, J. 315
Overton, R. 36n
Pagden, A. 327n, 328n
Palmer, R.R. 49
Papacy 31, 120–2
Parker, H. 33–4
Parliament (UK)
conflict with the Crown 31–2
governmental power, as 42–3, 47
highest court in England, as 32
peoples’ voice in England, as the 33–4
Reform Act 46
‘Rump’ 38–40
Patrician rulers 6, 120–3
patriotism see constitutional
Pauly, W. 88n
people
consent of 1, 6, 50–2, 149
subjects of legal order, as 15
unity of 14, 72, 211–12
Pernice, I. 185n,
Petersmann, E-U. 152n, 273
Pettit, P. 107n, 257n
Peukert, D. 93n
Pinna, P. 180n
Pitkin, H. 296n
Pizzorusso, A. 179n
plurinational sites
constitutional form of 234–5, 236, 240–1
demos of 231–4
ethnos of 232–4
meaning of 229
Pocock, J.G.A. 214n
Pogge, T. 338
Polanyi, K. 208
political
‘abyssal’, as 193–5
double inscription, as 191–5, 202–6
exclusion 22
imaginary 300, 309
inclusion 22
parties 55
pluralism 24, 198, 257
reflexivity 192, 206–7, 258, 297
self-determination 206
unity, as 18, 20, 22, 201–3, 313
Pompidou, G. 83
post-communism 7
power
governmental 1, 42–7, 323–5
of kings 30–31
Presidential
impeachment in USA 58–9
leadership ideology in Germany 133
power in France 81–4
Preuss, U.K. 7, 212n
Pufendorf, S. 318
Rancière, J. 295
Rawls, J. 6, 206, 218
Redslob, R. 90n
Rehfeld, A. 293n
Reicher, S. 310n
Reisman, M. 272
Reisman, W. 301n
Renan, E. 294n
republicanism
modern 107–25,
pre-modern 107–23, 150
Resina, J.R. 237
Revolution
1688, of 4, 257
American 150, 216, 257, 284
Central and Eastern Europe 212, 225n
constitutional order 243–4
revolutionary
discourse 5, 27, 35
moment 5, 172, 220–2
(p.374)
systemic change 223–4
transformative change 224–5
Ricoeur, P. 14, 15, 194n
Riecken, J. 95n
rights
priority of 7
Ritter, G.A. 70n
Roberts, C. 32n
Roberts, S. 302n
Robin, C. 298n
Robinson, R. 315, 316
Roermund, van B. 11n,14, 15, 202
Rokkan, S. 234n
Rosenne, S. 271
Rossiter, C. 131
Roussseau, J-J. 149n, 320
royal prerogative see Crown
Rudelle, O. 79n
rule of law 9, 68, 137 see also liberalism
Said, E. 338
Sartre, J.P. 197
Scharpf, F. 256n
Schermers, H.G. 270n
Scheuner, U. 280
Schlesinger, A.M. 63n
Schlink, B. 96n
Schmitt, C.
collective agency 13, 16
constituent power 129–34, 203, 213, 219n, 299, 302
constitutional theory 4, 9, 130–4
democracy 21–14
denunciation of Rechtstaat 23, 132–3
fascism 133n, 291, 300
rule of law 21–4
selfhood 16
theory of the political 131, 133, 192
Schnapper, D. 214n
Schneider, H. 95n
Schönberger, C. 89n
Schöpflin, G. 311n
Schumacher, F. 337
Schumpeter, J. 47n, 185
Seabrook, J. 334n
Searle, J. 10, 14
security, global 159–64
Sen, A. 313n
September 11
constitutional changes 61, 62, 64–5, 137
Shapiro, K. 302n
shared intentional activity 15–16
Shiva, V. 337
Shrybman, S. 324n
Sieyès, E-J. 68–9, 173n, 215, 293, 294, 299
Simpson, G. 334n
Skinner, Q. 320n,321, 322n
Skowronek, S. 57
Skubiszewski, K. 271, 272n
Smend, R. 180
Smith, A.D. 228n
society
nature of 3, 298
Sorel, G. 205n
Sousa-Santos, B. 301, 302, 337, 338
sovereignty
fragmented 169
parliamentary (in France) 79–80
popular 27, 32–8, 51, 79, 157, 173
relational 238–9
unbound 152
Spadaro, A. 179n, 182
Spinoza, B. 148
state
cultural forms 330–3
institutional forms 1, 53–61
modern 1, 5, 331
post-state polities 8, 244
sovereignty/authority 321–2
sub-state see plurinational sites
Strauss, L. 136n, 192n
Supreme Court of the USA
as interpreters of the constitution 50, 52, 54, 58, 61–2
Swan, P. 334n
Tamanaha, B. 301n
Taylor, C. 14n, 321
Teitel, R. 228n
Teubner, G. 165n, 166n, 276n, 301n
Thomas, K. 36n
Tierney, S. 7, 230n, 236n, 241n
Tomkins, A. 135–6, 144
Tomuschat, C. 272, 277, 278n, 280n, 285n
Tully, J. 8, 206, 263n, 265n, 317n, 322n, 323n, 335n, 337n
Unger, R. 198n
United Nations (UN) 8, 271
United Nations Charter
constitutional document 271, 273, 281–90, 319
Urwin, D. 234n
Vassilev, R.V. 227n
Verdross, A. 272, 277
Vinx, L. 138n
Volpe, G. 184, 185n
Waldenfelds, B. 21n, 202
Waldron, J. 148n, 164n
(p.375) Walker, N. 256n, 257n, 260n, 281, 286, 301n, 317, 326
Walter, C. 276n
Weber, M. 226n,274, 319, 323, 325
Wechsler, H. 186n
Weiler, J. 259n
Weimar Republic
constitutional design 6, 91, 216
democratic legitimacy of 92
failure of 101
liberal system, as 93
welfare dimensions 103
Wittgenstein, L. 321n
Wolfrum, R. 288n
Wood, G. 49, 60
Woolrych, A. 31n, 37n
Wootton, D. 37n
Young, I.M. 338
Zagrebelsky, G. 182
Žižek, S. 193
Zumbansen, P. 319n
Zweig, E. 90n